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Detailed Description:

101-007 Electronically Controlled Fuel System

table of Contents

Overview

Engine protection system

Engine protection shutdown

Engine protection shutdown manual override

Diagnostic code

Failure code snapshot data



Overview

TOC

This engine control system is an electronically controlled fuel system that provides many features of the operator, vehicle or equipment.

The basic functions of the control system include fuel supply and timing control, which limits the engine speed working range between the set low idling speed and high idling speed, and optimizes engine performance.

The control system uses the input signals from the operator and sensors to determine the fuel supply amount and timing when working at the engine's required speed.

The electronic control module (ECM) is the control center of the system. It processes all input signals and issues instructions to fuel systems, vehicles, and engine controls.

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The ECM performs diagnostic tests on most circuits and generates a fault code if a problem is detected in a circuit. When the fault code is recorded, the operating parameters of the engine at the moment of the fault are also stored in the memory.

Some fault codes can also trigger the diagnostic indicator light to signal the driver.

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The ECM communicates data through the SAE J1939 data communication interface and service tools, as well as some other vehicle controllers, such as gearboxes, anti-lock braking systems and anti-skid reduction systems.

Some vehicles and equipment are equipped with a J1939 network, which is connected to many "smart" controllers at the same time. The vehicle control device can temporarily control the engine speed or torque to achieve a certain function of the device, such as gear shifting or anti-lock braking.

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The control system uses many sensors to provide information on engine operating parameters. These sensors include:

Coolant temperature sensor

Intake pressure and temperature sensors

· Atmospheric pressure sensor

· Oil pressure switch

Engine speed sensor

Engine position sensor

Fuel water sensor

· Rail pressure sensor

The following inputs are optional for the OEM:

Accelerator pedal position sensor

· Idle speed effective switch

Engine coolant level sensor

Vehicle speed sensor

· Feature control switches (eg cruise control switches)

Fan control switch

· Air conditioning pressure switch

· Remote throttle

· Remote PTO.

Note: These inputs depend on the type of application. Some application types do not all use these inputs.

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Engine protection system

TOC

This engine is equipped with an engine protection system. The system monitors critical engine temperatures and pressures and logs faults when it is above or below the normal operating range. If engine performance specifications begin to fall outside the operating range, an alarm indicator in the cab will alert the operator. If conditions outside the working range persist and worsen, the alarm indicator will flash. When the red stop light is on, the driver must drive the car to the side of the road as soon as possible under safety conditions to reduce the possibility of engine damage.

Note: Depending on the severity of the situation, engine power and speed will gradually decrease. If the engine shutdown protection function is not enabled, the engine protection system will not stop the engine.

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Engine protection shutdown

This function automatically stops the engine when the temperature, pressure and coolant level sensors detect that the engine is operating above or below normal operating conditions.

Before the engine stops, the red (STOP) stop light in the cab will flash for 30 seconds to warn the driver.

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Engine protection shutdown manual override

This feature allows the operator to cancel an upcoming shutdown. Before the engine stops, the red (STOP) stop indicator in the cab will flash for 30 seconds to warn the driver that the engine is about to stop. The operator can cancel the engine shutdown by using an OEM switch, such as a clutch switch.

If the vehicle is not equipped with a clutch switch, the OEM will provide a dashboard-mounted switch labeled the engine protection shutdown cancel switch. When the operator flips the switch while the red indicator light is flashing, a timer in the ECM will reset, allowing the engine to run for an additional 30 seconds before stopping. Each time the operator toggles the cancel switch, the timer in the ECM will reset once, which increases the engine running time by 30 seconds

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Diagnostic code

TOC

The control system displays and records abnormal working conditions and displays them in the form of fault codes. These codes make troubleshooting easy. They are recorded in the ECM. They can be read via the fault indicator in the dashboard or the INSTE ™ service software.

Note: Not all engine and control system abnormalities have fault codes.

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There are three forms of system code:

· Engine electronic control system fault code

Engine protection system fault code

· Engine maintenance instruction code.

All recorded fault codes are divided into current fault codes (fault codes currently in operation in the engine) or non-active fault codes (fault codes used to be active but not currently active).

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Most electronic fault codes have an indicator light when they are active. There are three types of indicators that may light up when a fault code is generated.

· "Warning" or "Check Engine" is yellow, indicating that fault repair may be required immediately.

· The "Stop" or "Stop Engine" light is red, indicating that an immediate shutdown is required when a safe shutdown is possible. Stop the engine before troubleshooting.

· When maintenance is required on the engine, the “Maintenance” or “Fluid” indicator will light.

NOTE: The names and colors of these indicators vary depending on the device manufacturer.

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Some vehicles are also equipped with "WAIT-TO-START" and "WATER-IN-FUEL" lights. Turn the key switch to the ON position to warm up the engine during cold weather starting, and wait for the start indicator to light up. To reduce the engine start time in cold weather, wait for the start indicator to go out before starting the engine.

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The fuel water indicator indicates that the engine water separator needs to drain water. This work should be performed immediately after the indicator lights. Some vehicle manufacturers combine the functions of maintenance and fuel water indicator into one. If so, the maintenance indicator will indicate the fuel water alarm in addition to the maintenance.

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There are two ways to check the current fault code and maintenance instruction code of the engine's electronic fuel system, depending on whether the engine is equipped with a diagnostic switch.

Vehicles equipped with a diagnostic switch

· Turn the key switch to the OFF position. Turn the diagnostic switch to the ON position or connect the shorting plug to the diagnostic connector. Turn the vehicle key switch to the ON position.

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Vehicles without diagnostic switch

· Turn the vehicle key switch to the ON position. When the key switch is turned on but the engine is not running, press the accelerator pedal to the full throttle position, then return to the idle position, and reciprocate three times.

If no current fault code is recorded, both indicators will light and stay on.

If there is a fault code, the two indicators light up temporarily and then flash the recorded fault code.

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The fault code flashing sequence is as follows:

• The alarm (yellow) indicator flashes first.

· Then pause for 1 or 2 seconds, then the stop indicator (red) will flash the number of the recorded fault code. There will be a 1 or 2 second pause between each number.

· After the fault code is displayed in red, the yellow light is on again, and the three-digit code is repeated in the same order.

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The indicator flashes twice for each fault code and the fault code will be displayed. To quickly jump to the fault code, temporarily turn the idle speed adjustment switch (if equipped) to the "(+)" position. Turn the idle adjustment switch (if equipped) to the "(-)" position temporarily to return to the fault code. If only one active fault is recorded, the control system continues to display the same fault code even if the switch is turned to the "(+)" or "(-)" position.

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The description and troubleshooting of the fault code are described in "ISB, ISBe2, ISBe3, ISBe4, QSB4.5, QSB5.9, QSB6.7, ISC, QSC8.3, ISL, ISLe3, ISLe4, and QSL9. Discussed in Section TF of the Handbook (Bulletin No. 4021416).

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When not using the diagnostic system, turn off the diagnostic switch or remove the shorting plug. If the diagnostic switch is in the "ON" position or the shorting plug is in place, the electronic control module will not be able to record certain faults.

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Failure code snapshot data

TOC

Use INSITE ™ service software to learn more about fault code dates. These snapshot data record the values or states of sensors and switches in the control system at the time of the failure. Recorded is the data of the first and last occurrence of the fault, which will be cleared at the end. This data is very valuable when trying to reproduce or determine the operating state of the engine at the time of the failure.

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