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Products
400A and 400D industrial engine operation and maintenance manual


Detailed Description:

404D-15 engine

402D-05 engine

Table 16

Table 18

404D-15 engine

Filling capacity

402D-05 engine

Filling capacity

Cabin or system

lowest

highest

Cabin or system

Rise

Quart

1.2

5.6 L

(5.9175

qt)

Only for engines

1.1

3.9 L

(4.1211 qt)

Crankcase oil sump

(1)

External System (Original Equipment Manufacturer

Equipped)

(1)

Total lubrication system capacity

(2)

Total cooling system capacity

(2)

(1) These values are approximate capacities of the crankcase sump, including factory installed

Capacity of standard oil filter. Engines equipped with auxiliary oil filters will require

Ask for extra oil. For the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter, see the original

Technical parameters of the original equipment manufacturer.

(1) The external system includes a radiator or an expansion tank with the following components:

Exchangers and tubing. See original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specifications.

Enter the external system capacity value in this line.

(2) The total capacity of the lubrication system is equal to the capacity of the crankcase oil sump and the factory installed oil filter

The sum of the capacity of the cleaner and other filters installed in the lubrication system. Fill in this line

The total capacity of the lubrication system.

(2) The total cooling system capacity is equal to the sum of the engine capacity and the external system capacity. In this

Enter the total cooling system capacity in the row.

403D-07 engine

404D-22, 404D-22T and 404D-22TA engines

Table 19

Table 17

403D-07 engine

Filling capacity

404D-22, 404D-22T and 404D-22TA engines

Filling capacity

Cabin or system

Rise

Quart

1.3

Cabin or system

lowest

highest

Only for engines

1.2

8.9 L

(9.4 qt)

10.6 L

(11.2 qt)

Crankcase oil sump

(1)

External System (Original Equipment Manufacturer

Equipped)

(1)

Total lubrication system capacity

(2)

Total cooling system capacity

(2)

(1) Various types of oil sump can be used on these engines. Use these values

To estimate the fill capacity. Use the engine oil dipstick to fill the engine to the correct

Engine oil level. Record the results in this table. These values are for the crankcase oil sump

Approximate capacity, including the capacity of factory-installed standard oil filters. installation

Engines with an auxiliary oil filter will require additional oil. About auxiliary oil

Refer to the technical specifications of the original equipment manufacturer for the capacity of the filter.

(2) The total capacity of the lubrication system is equal to the capacity of the crankcase oil sump and the factory installed oil filter

(1) The external system includes a radiator or an expansion tank with the following components:

Exchangers and tubing. See original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specifications.

Enter the external system capacity value in this line.

(2) The total cooling system capacity is equal to the sum of the engine capacity and the external system capacity. In this

Enter the total cooling system capacity in the row.

The sum of the capacity of the cleaner and other filters installed in the lubrication system. Fill in this line

The total capacity of the lubrication system.

403D-11 engine

Table 20

cooling system

403D-11 engine

Filling capacity

In order to properly maintain the cooling system, the total cooling system capacity must be known.

Approximate capacity applies to engine cooling system. External system capacity will

Varies by application. For external system capacity, see

See OEM technical parameters. Need to know this capacity data in order to determine

The amount of coolant required for the entire cooling system.

Cabin or system

Rise

Quart

2.0

Only for engines

1.9

External System (Original Equipment Manufacturer

Equipped)

(1)

Total cooling system capacity

(2)

(1) The external system includes a radiator or an expansion tank with the following components:

Exchangers and tubing. See original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specifications.

Enter the external system capacity value in this line.

(2) The total cooling system capacity is equal to the sum of the engine capacity and the external system capacity. In this

Enter the total cooling system capacity in the row.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


38

Maintenance section

Filling capacity

SCBU8311-03

403D-15 and 403D-15T engines

i03840675

Oil recommendations

Table 21

403D-15 and 403D-15T engines

Filling capacity

Cabin or system

Rise

Quart

2.7

General lubricant information

Only for engines

2.6

Due to government regulations related to engine exhaust emission certification,

Lubricant recommendations must be followed.

External System (Original Equipment Manufacturer

Equipped)

(1)

Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) oil

Total cooling system capacity

(2)

(1) The external system includes a radiator or an expansion tank with the following components:

Perkins recognizes engine manufacturers ’

Suggested guiding principles. For more information on this guideline, see

Read the latest edition of EMA Publications, "EMA DHD-1".

Exchangers and tubing. See original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specifications.

Enter the external system capacity value in this line.

(2) The total cooling system capacity is equal to the sum of the engine capacity and the external system capacity. In this

Enter the total cooling system capacity in the row.

API motor oil

404D-15 engine

Perkins recognizes engine oil licenses established by the American Petroleum Institute (API)

Available and certification system. For more information about this system, see

Read the latest version of "API Publication 1509". With API symbol

Engine oil is approved by API authority.

Table 22

404D-15 engine

Filling capacity

Cabin or system

Rise

Quart

2.5

Only for engines

2.4

External System (Original Equipment Manufacturer

Equipped)

(1)

Total cooling system capacity

(2)

(1) The external system includes a radiator or an expansion tank with the following components:

Exchangers and tubing. See original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specifications.

Enter the external system capacity value in this line.

(2) The total cooling system capacity is equal to the sum of the engine capacity and the external system capacity. In this

Enter the total cooling system capacity in the row.

404D-22, 404D-22T and 404D-22TA engines

g00546535

Figure 29

Table 23

Typical API symbols

404D-22, 404D-22T and 404D-22TA engines

Filling capacity

Since January 1, 1996, diesel engine oils CC, CD,

CD-2 and CE are no longer API approved. Table 24 summarizes

The status of the level.

Cabin or system

Rise

Quart

3.8

Only for engines

3.6

Table 24

External System (Original Equipment Manufacturer

Equipped)

(1)

API level

Total cooling system capacity

(2)

in force

CF-4, CG-4, CH-4

CF

Void

CE

(1) The external system includes a radiator or an expansion tank with the following components:

Exchangers and tubing. See original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specifications.

Enter the external system capacity value in this line.

(2) The total cooling system capacity is equal to the sum of the engine capacity and the external system capacity. In this

Enter the total cooling system capacity in the row.

CC, CD

CF-2

(1)

CD-2

(1)

(1) CD-2 and American Petroleum Institute CF-2 grade oils are suitable for two-stroke diesel engines

machine. Perkins does not sell engines that use API CD-2 and API CF-2 oils.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SCBU8311-03

39

Maintenance section

Filling capacity

the term

API CH-4-API CH-4 oil is designed to meet new high performance diesel

Developed for the requirements of oil engines. And the oil is designed to

Meet the requirements of low-emission diesel engines. API CH-4 oil is also allowed

May be used in old diesel engines and diesel engines using high sulfur diesel

on board. API CH-4 oil can be used with API CG-4 and

API CF-4 oil on Perkins engines. API CH-4 oil

The performance of API CG-4 will generally be exceeded on the following criteria:

Carbon, oil consumption control, wear of piston rings, wear of valve train,

Viscosity control and corrosion.

Some acronyms follow the nomenclature of "SAE J754". Some levels comply

Following the abbreviation "SAE J183", some grades follow the "EMA diesel launch

Motor Oil Recommendations Guiding Principles ". In addition to Perkins' definition, there are other

It defines how helpful it is when buying lubricants. For recommended oils

Viscosity, see this publication, "Fluid Recommendations / Engine

Engine Oil "theme (maintenance section).

Engine oil

Development of three new engine tests for API CH-4 oil. the first

Tests specifically evaluate the performance of engines with two-piece steel pistons

Plug carbon. This test (piston deposits) also measures the control of oil consumption.

system. The second test was performed using a medium soot content motor oil. First

Two tests measure the following criteria: wear of piston rings, grinding of cylinder liners

Damage and corrosion protection. The third new test uses engine oil with high soot content

Measure the following characteristics: Wear of gas distribution mechanism, prevent oil from blocking the machine

Control of oil filters and sludge.

Commercial motor oil

The performance distinction of commercially available diesel engine oils is based on the American Petroleum Institute

(API) level. These API levels are designed to operate under different operating conditions

A variety of diesel engines were developed to provide commercially available lubricants.

Use only commercially available motor oils that meet the following levels:

• EMA DHD-1 multi-grade oil (preferred oil)

• API CH-4 multi-grade oil (preferably selected oil)

• ACEAE5

In addition to new tests, API CH-4 oils are generating high smoke

Very strict limits for viscosity control in rhenium applications. The machine

The oil also has improved antioxidant properties. For using aluminum pistons (single piece)

Engine, API CH-4 oil must pass additional tests (piston

Carbon deposits). For engines operating in areas using high sulfur diesel

The oil performance is also formulated.

In order to choose the right commercial motor oil, please refer to the following instructions:

All these improvements enable the optimal change of API CH-4 oil

Oil cycle. API CH-4 oil is recommended for extended oil change intervals

Use. API CH-4 oil is recommended for use when high quality machine is needed

The condition of the oil. Your Perkins agent or your Perkins distributor

There are specific guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.

EMA DHD-1-Association of Engine Manufacturers

Is recommended as part of the American Petroleum Institute's (API) oil classification system.

Alternative to another system. DHD-1 is a recommended guide

Principle to determine the oil performance of the following types of diesel engines

Flat: high speed, 4 stroke, heavy duty and light duty. DHD-1

Oil can be used in Perkins engines where the following oils are recommended: API

CH-4, API CG-4 and API CF-4. DHD-1 oil is intended to provide

Better performance than API CG-4 and API CF-4.

Use of some commercially available motor oils that meet the API level may require shorter replacements

Oil cycle. To determine the oil change interval, closely monitor the oil condition and keep going

Wear metal analysis.

note

DHD-1 oil will be able to meet the high requirements for many types of applications.

Performance Perkins diesel engine needs. Determine DHD-1 Test

Trial and test qualifications are similar to the new API CH-4 level. So this

These oils also meet the requirements of diesel engines that require low emissions.

DHD-1 oil is designed to control the harmful effects of soot, and at the same time

Improved wear resistance and improved resistance to oil filter clogging.

These oils will also provide two-piece steel or aluminum pistons.

The more piston carbon deposit control.

Failure to follow these oil recommendations can result from carbon buildup and / or excessive wear

Reduce engine life.

Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur Content of Diesel Engine Oil

The total base number of the engine oil depends on the sulfur content of the fuel. For using fractions

For diesel engines, the minimum TBN for new oil must be diesel-containing

10 times the amount of sulfur. TBN is defined by "ASTM D2896". Motor oil

The minimum TBN is 5, regardless of the sulfur content of the fuel. Figure 30

Displays the range of TBN.

All DHD-1 oils must be finished for basic components and commercially available

A complete set of test procedures for the viscosity grades of oils. "API Base Oil Mutual

"Guidelines for change" do not apply to DHD-1 oil. This feature can be reduced

It may happen when the basic components in the commercial oil formula are changed.

Performance fluctuations.

DHD-1 oil is recommended for use in applications where the life of the oil can be optimized.

Long oil change intervals are planned. These oil change cycle plans are based on the oil content

Analysis results. DHD-1 oil is recommended for use where high quality oil is required

Case. Your Perkins agent or your Perkins distributor has

Specific guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


40

Maintenance section

Filling capacity

SCBU8311-03

Table 26

Engine oil viscosity

EMA LRG-1

API CH-4

Viscosity grade

Ambient temperature

lowest

highest

SAE 0W20

SAE 0W30

SAE 0W40

SAE 5W30

SAE 5W40

SAE 10W30

SAE 15W40

−40 ° C (−40 ° F)

−40 ° C (−40 ° F)

−40 ° C (−40 ° F)

−30 ° C (−22 ° F)

−30 ° C (−22 ° F)

−20 ° C (−4 ° F)

−10 ° C (14 ° F)

10 ° C (50 ° F)

30 ° C (86 ° F)

40 ° C (104 ° F)

30 ° C (86 ° F)

40 ° C (104 ° F)

40 ° C (104 ° F)

50 ° C (122 ° F)

g00799818

Figure 30

(Y) TBN as defined by "ASTM D2896"

(X) Fuel sulfur content by weight

(1) TBN of new oil

Synthetic base oil

(2) Change the oil when the TBN is reduced to 50% of the initial TBN.

Synthetic base oils can be used in these engines as long as this oil is used

Meet engine specific performance requirements.

Use the following guidelines when sulfur content exceeds 1.5%:

• Select an oil with the highest TBN that meets the following grades: EMA

DHD-1 and API CH-4.

Generally speaking, synthetic base oils surpass traditional engine oils in two ways:

• Synthetic base oils have improved low-temperature fluidity, especially in northern China

Polar environment.

• Shorten oil change intervals. Determining the oil change week based on the oil analysis

period. Ensure oil analysis includes oil condition and wear metal analysis.

• Synthetic base oils have improved oxidative stability, especially at high

When running.

High TBN oils can cause excessive piston deposits. These carbon deposits

May lose oil control and barrel polish.

Some synthetic base oils have properties that increase the life of the engine oil. amber

Kings does not recommend automatically extending the oil change intervals for any type of oil.

note

The use of fuels with a sulphur content exceeding 0.5% on diesel engines requires a reduction

Short oil change intervals to maintain adequate wear protection.

Re-refined base oil

Table 25

Re-refined base oils can be used in Perkins engines as long as these engines

The oil meets the performance requirements specified by Perkins. Refined base oil can

Widely used alone in refined oils or mixed with new base oils.

U.S. military regulations and other heavy equipment manufacturers' specifications also allow

Use recycled basic oils that meet the same criteria.

Fuel sulfur content

Below 0.5

Oil change interval

normal

0.5 to 1.0

Higher than 1.0

0.75 Normal

0.50 Normal

Re-refined base oil production process should be sufficient to remove all used oil

Wear metal shavings and additives. Re-refined base oil production workers

The process usually involves the vacuum distillation and hydrogenation of used oil.

Filtration is sufficient to produce high quality rerefined base oils.

Recommended lubricant viscosity

The correct oil American Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) viscosity grades are

Lowest ambient temperature during engine cold start and engine operation

Determined by the maximum ambient temperature.

Lubricants in cold weather

When the engine is started at an ambient temperature below −20 ° C (−4 ° F) and

When operating, use multi-grade oil that can flow at low temperatures.

Refer to Table 26 (Minimum Temperature) to determine what the engine will do during a cold start

Required oil viscosity.

These oils have lubricant viscosity grades of SAE 0W or SAE 5W.

Please refer to Table 26 (Maximum Temperature) to select the maximum

Oil viscosity required for operation at ambient temperature.

When the engine starts at an ambient temperature below −30 ° C (−22 ° F) and

When operating, use a multi-stage synthetic base with a viscosity grade of 0W or 5W

Base oil. Use oil with a pour point below −50 ° C (−58 ° F).

Generally speaking, before meeting the requirements of starting temperature on oil viscosity,

Then, select the oil with the highest viscosity.

The amount of lubricating oil that is acceptable in cold weather conditions is limited.

Perkins recommends the following lubricants in cold weather:

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SCBU8311-03

41

Maintenance section

Filling capacity

First choice-use guidelines with EMA DHD-1 recommendations

Motor oil. Use CH-4 oil with API certificate. Optional

Engine oil must be SAE 0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40,

Lubricant viscosity grades for SAE 5W30 or SAE 5W40.

• Perform tests to detect oil, water, glycol or fuel

quality.

• Analysis of the condition of the oil determines the decrease in the lubricating performance of the oil.

Infrared analysis is used to compare the performance of old oil samples with those of new oils.

Performance comparison. This analysis enables technicians to determine

Degradation of engine oil performance during the process. The analysis also enables technicians to

The performance of the oil is determined according to the specifications throughout the oil change cycle.

Second option – use motor oil with CH-4 additive package. which is

Motor oils that have not been tested for API certification requirements must also have SAE

0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30 or

SAE 5W40 rating.

i03334309

Oil recommendations

note

Use of a second choice oil may result in shortened engine life

Life.

(Coolant technical parameters)

Aftermarket oil additives

Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket additives in motor oils.

There is no need to use additives from the aftermarket to bring the engine to its

Maximum life and rated performance. Completely formulated refined oil is made from

Base oil and commercially available additive packages. These additives are combined to precisely

% Blended into base oils to provide industry standards

A quasi-performance oil.

Coolant Overview

note

Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine may be caused by

It is damaged. The engine should be allowed to cool first.

There is no appraisal of the aftermarket additives' performance

Capacitive industry standard testing. Additives in the aftermarket are possible

Incompatible with additive combinations in refined oils, which will reduce refined oils

Performance. Additives in the aftermarket may not be as good as refined oil

Good mix. This may cause sludge in the crankcase. Perkins no

Encourage the use of aftermarket additives in refined oils.

note

If the engine is stored or shipped in an area below freezing temperature,

However, the system must be protected at the lowest ambient temperature or fully

To prevent damage.

note

In order to properly prevent freezing and boiling, always check the ratio of coolant

weight.

To get the best performance from your Perkins engine, follow these

Guiding Principles:

• Select the correct engine oil that meets the "EMA for diesel engine oil

Recommended Guiding Principles "or recommended API grade commercially available motor oils.

The cooling system should be cleaned for the following reasons:

• The cooling system is contaminated

• Engine overheating

• Refer to the appropriate "Lubricant Viscosity" table to find the right one for you

The correct oil viscosity level for the engine.

• Perform engine maintenance at the prescribed maintenance intervals. Use new machine

Oil and install a new oil filter.

• Coolant foaming

• As specified in the Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Maintenance Schedule"

Maintenance intervals.

note

Never run the engine without a water temperature regulator in the cooling system

machine. Water temperature regulator helps keep engine coolant at the correct level

Operating temperature. When the water temperature regulator is not installed, the cooling system may gradually

Failure will occur.

Oil analysis

Some engines are equipped with organic oil sampling valves. Oil if needed

For analysis, a sample of engine oil needs to be extracted with a sampling valve. Motor oil

The analysis will complement the preventive maintenance procedures.

Many engine failures are related to the cooling system. The following questions are related to the cold

But system failures are related to: overheating, leaking pumps and radiators or

Heat exchanger blocked.

Oil analysis is a diagnostic tool for determining oil performance and components

Wear rate. Impurities can be identified and determined by using oil analysis.

Oil analysis includes the following tests:

These failures can be avoided by proper cooling system maintenance.

Cooling system maintenance is as important as maintenance of the fuel system and lubrication system

Yes. The quality of the coolant is as important as the quality of the fuel and lubricant.

• Wear rate analysis detects engine metal wear. Analysis of motor oil

The amount of wear metal and the category of wear metal. Analysis of engine oil

Increased wear rate of motive metal and engine metal wear in engine oil

Quantity is just as important.

Coolant / antifreeze usually consists of three ingredients: water, additives

And glycol.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


42

Maintenance section

Filling capacity

SCBU8311-03

water

• Blockage of radiators, coolers and small channels

Ethylene glycol

Water is used in the cooling system to transfer heat.

It is recommended to use distilled or deionized water in the cooling system.

Glycol in coolant helps protect against the following

happened:

Do not use the following types of water in cooling systems: hard water, salt

Conditioned softened water and sea water.

• Boiling

If distilled or deionized water is not available, use the

Column characteristics of water.

• Freeze

• Water pump cavities

Table 27

For best performance, Perkins recommends using a water / glycol solution

1: 1 mixture.

Available water:

characteristic

Chloride (Cl)

Sulfate (SO4)

total hardness

High limit

40 mg / L

Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection at the lowest ambient temperature.

100 mg / L

Note: 100% pure ethylene glycol will be at a temperature of −23 ° C (−9 ° F)

It freezes sometimes.

170 mg / L

Total solids

acidity

340 mg / L

Most traditional antifreezes

Use ethylene glycol. Can also be used

alcohol. When mixed with water 1: 1, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol provide similar

Protection against frost and boiling. See tables 28 and 29.

pH values from 5.5 to 9.0

For water quality analysis, please consult one of the following channels:

• Local water company

Table 28

Ethylene glycol

concentration

50%

60%

Antifreeze

• Agricultural agency

−36 ° C (−33 ° F)

−51 ° C (−60 ° F)

• Independent laboratory

additive

note

Use of propylene glycol due to reduced heat transfer capacity of propylene glycol

The concentration of ethylene glycol must not exceed 50%. Requires additional freeze protection and protection

For boiling protection, ethylene glycol can be used.

Additives help protect the metal surfaces of the cooling system. Lack of coolant

Insufficient additives or dosages can cause the following:

• corrosion

Table 29

• Formation of mineral deposits

• Rust

Ethylene glycol

monopoly

50%

Antifreeze

−29 ° C (−20 ° F)

• Weighing

To check the glycol concentration in the coolant, check the coolant specific gravity.

• Coolant foaming

Coolant recommendations

Many additives are lost during engine operation. These additives

Must be added periodically.

• ELC________________________________________________

Long-lasting coolant

Additives must be added to the correct concentration. Additive concentration is too high

Causes the inhibitor to precipitate out of solution. Sediment may cause these

The problem occurred:

• SCA__________________________________

Supplementary coolant additives

American Society for Testing and Materials

• ASTM________________________________

• Formation of gels

• Reduced heat transfer

• Leakage of pump seal

The following two coolants are used on Perkins diesel engines:

First Choice-Perkins ELC

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SCBU8311-03

43

Maintenance section

Filling capacity

Permissible types-Markets that meet the requirements of "ASTM D4985"

Sell heavy duty antifreeze

Several sizes of containers are available. For part numbers, please consult

Ask your Perkins distributor.

ELC cooling system maintenance

The right additive for long-lasting coolants

note

Do not use commercially available cooling that meets only ASTM D3306 specifications

Fluid / antifreeze. This type of coolant / antifreeze is intended for light automotive applications

Prepared.

note

Perkins recommends a 1: 1 mix of water and glycol. This B

The mixture of diol and water as antifreeze can achieve the best overload

业 performance. Water / Ethylene if required to provide protection in extremely cold conditions

The ratio of alcohol can be increased to 1: 2.

Use premixed or concentrated coolants only for Perkins products.

Mix long-lasting coolant with other products to reduce the use of long-lasting coolant

life. Failure to follow the recommendations will reduce the life of the cooling system components

Unless you take the correct remedy.

Note: Commercially available heavy duty that meets the requirements of "ASTM D4985" technical parameters

Industry antifreeze may need to be supplemented with coolant

Additives (SCA). Read the products of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM)

Label or description provided with the product.

To properly maintain the balance between antifreeze and additives, you must

Support the recommended ELC concentration. Reduced the amount of antifreeze

The amount of additives is low. This will reduce the coolant protection system

Resistance to pitting, pitting, corrosion and deposition.

In non-mobile and anti-boiling or frost protection

In marine engine applications, supplemental coolant can be used

Agent (SCA) and water. Perkins recommends that

System maintains supplemental coolant additive (SCA) concentration at 6%

To 8%. It is best to use distilled or deionized water. Meet water quality

The required water can also be used.

note

Do not use traditional coolants to refill with Extended Life Coolant (ELC)

Cooling system.

Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive (SCA).

Table 30

When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard cold SCA or SCA

Filter.

Coolant life

Coolant type

Perkins ELC

Service life

6,000 working hours or 3 years

Cleaning of ELC cooling system

Markets conforming to "ASTM D4985"

Sell heavy duty antifreeze

3000 working hours or two years

Note: If ELC is already used in the cooling system,

The coolant change cycle uses cleaners. Only if the system has been

Some other type of coolant added or damaged by the cooling system

Detergents are required for contamination.

Perkins POWERPART

SCA

3000 working hours or two years

3000 working hours or two years

Commercially available SCA and water

When the ELC is discharged from the cooling system, the only cleaning agent required is

It's Shimizu.

ELC

Before filling the cooling system, the heater control (if equipped)

(Equipment) set in the hot position. Please set the heater control device

Consult OEM. After draining and refilling the cooling system,

Motive to make the coolant level reach normal working temperature and keep steady

set. When needed, add coolant mixture and prime the system to

Required level.

ELC from Perkins can be used in the following application types:

• Heavy-duty spark-ignition gas engines

• Heavy duty diesel engines

• Automotive applications

Switch to Perkins ELC

ELC preservative packaging is not compatible with other coolant preservative packages.

with. ELC is a glycol-based coolant. However, ELC contains nitrous acid

Anti-corrosive and anti-foam agents with low acid content. Perkins ELC is used

Formulated in the right amount for these engine cooling systems

All metals in the system provide excellent corrosion protection.

In order to replace heavy duty antifreeze with Perkins ELC,

Next steps:

note

Care must be taken when inspecting, maintaining, testing, adjusting and repairing the product

To ensure that the drained oil is collected. Before opening any chamber or disassembling

Before disassembling any liquid-storage parts, prepare them in a suitable container

Collect the liquid.

ELC is in the form of a cooling solution mixed 1: 1 with distilled water beforehand.

Style. This pre-mixed ELC provides freeze protection at −36 ° C (−33 ° F)

protection. This pre-mixed ELC is recommended for the first filling of the cooling system.

use. It is recommended to also use pre-mixed ELC when replenishing coolant.

Dispose of all liquids in accordance with local regulations and directives.

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44

Maintenance section

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1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.

2. Dispose of the coolant in accordance with local regulations.

Commercially available heavy duty antifreeze and SCA

note

Do not use commercially available heavy duty amines containing amines as part of a preservative system

Industry coolant.

3. Flush the cooling system with clean water to remove any debris.

4. Use Perkins cleaner to clean the system. Follow the label

Bright.

note

Never run the engine without a water temperature regulator in the cooling system

machine. Water temperature regulator helps keep engine coolant at the correct level

Operating temperature. When the water temperature regulator is not installed, the cooling system may gradually

Failure will occur.

5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Rinse with cold water

But the system.

6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and run the engine until the engine

Warm up to 49º to 66 ° C (120º to 150 ° F).

Check antifreeze (glycol concentration) to ensure adequate protection against boiling and

Freeze protection. Perkins recommends using a refractometer to check glycol concentration.

note

Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system can damage copper and other metals

component.

Perkins engine cooling system should be tested every 500 hours

Concentration of supplemental coolant additive (SCA).

To avoid damaging the cooling system, ensure that the cooling is rinsed thoroughly with clean water

system. Continue to flush the system until all traces of the cleaning agent have disappeared

until.

The addition of SCA is based on the results of the trial. SCA of liquid may be

Add every 500 hours.

See Table 31 for SCA part numbers and usage.

7. Drain the coolant into a suitable container and rinse the cooling system with clean water.

Table 31

NOTE: The cooling system cleaner must be flushed from the cooling system.

Cooling system cleaners left in the system will contaminate the coolant. clean

Agents can also corrode the cooling system.

Perkins Liquid SCA

Part Number

Quantity

10

21825735

8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until the cooling system is completely clean.

9. Fill the cooling system with Perkins pre-mixed ELC.

Adding SCA to the heavy-duty working coolant during the first filling

Commercially available heavy-duty operations that meet the requirements of "ASTM D4985"

Coolant may need to be added during initial filling

Agent (SCA). Read one with an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) product

Label or instruction provided.

Pollution of long-lasting coolant cooling system

note

Mixing ELC with other products can reduce ELC's

Effect and shorten the life of ELC. Use only Perkins's

Mix or concentrate coolant products. Failure to follow these recommendations will shrink

Short life of cooling system components.

Use the calculation formula in Table 32 to determine the

Number of Perkins SCA required.

Table 32

ELC cooling system can withstand up to 10% of traditional heavy duty operations

Contamination of antifreeze or SCA. If pollution exceeds total system capacity

10%, please perform one of the following procedures:

Adding replenishment to the heavy-duty working coolant when first filling

Calculation formula of coolant additives

V × 0.045 = X

V is the total capacity of the cooling system.

• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container. Dispose in accordance with local regulations

Set coolant. Rinse the cooling system with clean water. With Perkins ELC

Filling system.

X is the number of SCAs required.

• Drain some of the liquid from the cooling system to an appropriate place in accordance with local regulations

Container. The cooling system is then filled with pre-mixed ELC.

This will reduce pollution to less than 10%.

Table 33 is an example using the calculation formula in Table 32.

Table 33

Add replenishment cold to the heavy-duty working coolant when first filling

Example of the calculation formula of the liquid additive

• Maintain the system with traditional heavy duty coolant. With SCA

理 系统。 Management system. Replacement of coolant in recommended traditional heavy duty operations

Change the coolant periodically.

Total cooling system

Capacity (V)

Doubling factor

Desired SCA

Quantity (X)

15 L (4 US gal)

× 0.045

0.7 L (24 oz)

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SCBU8311-03

45

Maintenance section

Filling capacity

Add SCA to heavy duty work coolant for maintenance

• FAME fatty acid methyl ester

• CFR Fuel Coordination Research Committee

• LSD low sulfur diesel

All types of heavy duty antifreeze require periodic addition of SCA.

Test the SCA concentration of the antifreeze regularly. For specific cycles, please

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Maintenance Interval Schedule" (Maintenance Department

Minute). Test the SCA concentration.

• ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel

• RME rapeseed oil methyl ester

• SME Soybean Oil Methyl Ester

• EPA US Environmental Protection Agency

The addition of SCA is based on the results of the trial. Cooling system capacity

The number of SCA required for the crane.

If necessary, use the calculation formula in Table 34 to determine the required Perkins

Number of SCA:

Table 34

General information

Add replenishment cooling to heavy-duty working coolant during maintenance

Formula for liquid additives

note

V × 0.014 = X

V is the total capacity of the cooling system.

We make every effort to provide accurate and timely information. You use this

The document also means that you agree with Perkins Engine Co.

Shall not be held liable for any errors or omissions.

X is the number of SCAs required.

note

These recommendations are subject to change without notice. About the latest

For advice, contact your local Perkins distributor.

Table 35 is an example using the calculation formula in Table 34.

Table 35

Add replenishment cooling to heavy-duty working coolant during maintenance

Of calculation formula of liquid additives

Requirements for diesel

Total cooling system

Capacity (V)

Doubling factor

Desired SCA

Quantity (X)

Desirable engine performance depends on the use of high-quality fuel. Use premium

Fuel will have the following results: Extended engine life and compliance

Required exhaust emission levels. Fuel must meet Tables 36, 37 and

38 minimum requirements.

15 L (4 US gal)

× 0.014

0.2 L (7 oz)

Remove heavy duty antifreeze from the cooling system

note

Footnotes are a key part of the technical data sheet for Perkins distillate diesel.

Please read all footnotes.

Perkins Cooling System Cleaner is designed to remove harmful water from the cooling system

Designed for dirt and corrosion. Perkins cooling system cleaner is soluble

Mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil contaminants and sludge.

• After draining the old coolant or filling the cooling system with new coolant

Before cleaning the cooling system.

• Clean the coolant whenever it is found to be contaminated or frothed

cooling system.

i03334307

Oil recommendations

(Fuel technical parameters)

• Glossary

• ISO International Standards Organization

• ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials

• HFRR high frequency reciprocating test method for diesel lubricity test

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46

Maintenance section

Filling capacity

SCBU8311-03

Table 36

Technical parameters of Perkins distillate diesel

(1)

characteristic

unit

Claim

"ASTM" test method

D1319

"ISO" test method

Aromatic compound

Ash

Capacity percentage

Weight percent

Weight percent

Up to 35%

Up to 0.02%

0.35% max

"ISO" 3837

"ISO" 6245

"ISO" 4262

D482

10% of the bottom area

Carbon residue

D524

-

Cetane number

Cloud point

(2)

Minimum 40

D613 / D6890

D2500

"ISO" 5165

"ISO" 3015

° C

Cloud point must never exceed the minimum forecast

Period ambient temperature.

-

Copper strip corrosion

No. 3

D130

"ISO" 2160

Dense at 15 ° C (59 ° F)

Kg / M

3

Lowest 801 / highest 876

No equivalent test

"ISO 3675 / ISO 12185" ""

degree

(3)

Distillation

° C

Max at 282 ° C (539.6 ° F)

10% higher

Up to 360 ° C (680 ° F)

90%

D86

"ISO" 3405

Flash point

° C

-

Legal limit

D93

"ISO" 2719

Thermal stability

At 150 ° C (302 ° F)

After 180 minutes at least

80% reflectance

D6468

No equivalent test

Pour point

° C

Below ambient temperature

6 ° C (42.8 ° F)

D97

"ISO" 3016

sulfur

(1) (4)

Mass percentage

Sulfur content in fuel

Regulatory control. For more

For information, refer to Table 37 and

38.

D5453 / D26222

"ISO 20846" "/ ISO 20884"

Kinematic viscosity

(5)

"MM"

2

"/ S (cSt)"

Fuel sticky to the fuel injection pump

degree. "Minimum 1.4 / Maximum 4.5"

D445

"ISO" 3405

"ISO" 3734

Water and sediment

water

Weight percent

Weight percent

Up to 0.1%

D1796

D1744

D473

Up to 0.1%

No equivalent test

"ISO" 3735

Precipitate

Weight percent

mg / 100ml

mm

Up to 0.05%

Colloids and resins

(6)

10 mg / 100 mL

Up to 0.46%

D381

"ISO" 6246

Warp at 60 ° C (140 ° F)

Straightened wear scar after straightening correction

D6079

"ISO" 12156-1

path.

(7)

(1) This technical parameter includes requirements for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). ULSD fuel sulfur content ≤ 15 ppm (0.0015%). See "ASTM D5453", "ASTM D2622" or "ISO

20846, ISO 20884 ”test method. This technical parameter includes requirements for low sulfur diesel (LSD). LSD fuel sulfur content ≤500 ppm (0.05%). Please refer to the following information:

"ASTM 5453, ASTM D2622", "ISO 20846" and "ISO 20884 Test Methods". See Tables 37 and 38.

(2) It is recommended to use fuel with high cetane number when working in high altitude or cold weather.

(3) "The standard table shows that 801 kg / m

(Kg / m3) has an equivalent API gravity of 45 at the lowest density and 30 "at a maximum density of 876 kg / m.

3 3

(4) Regional regulations, national regulations or international regulations may require certain limits on the sulfur content of fuel oil. Review all applicable regulations before selecting a fuel for a specific engine application. Perkins Fuel System

Systems and engine components can use high sulfur fuels in areas where emissions are not required. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust emissions. High sulphur fuel also increases the possibility of corrosion of internal components

Sex. When the fuel sulfur content exceeds 0.5%, the oil change interval can be shortened significantly. For more information, see this manual, "Oil Recommendations (General Lubricant Information)".

(5) The value of fuel viscosity is the value when fuel is delivered to the injection pump. Fuel should also meet the requirements of 40 ° C (104 ° F) when using the "ASTM D445" test method or the "ISO 3104" test method.

Specified minimum and maximum viscosity requirements. If low viscosity fuel is used, it may be necessary to cool the fuel to maintain a viscosity of 1.4 centistokes or greater at the fuel injection pump. High viscosity fuel

Fuel heaters may be required to reduce the viscosity on the injection pump to 4.5 cSt.

(6) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).

(7) Low-sulfur and ultra-low-sulfur fuels have fuel lubricity problems. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, the measurement was performed using the "ISO 12156-1 or ASTM D6079 High Frequency Reciprocation Test (HFRR)"

test. If the fuel lubricity does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your fuel supplier. Do not dispose of fuel without consulting your fuel supplier. Some additives are incompatible

of. These additives may cause the fuel system to malfunction.

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SCBU8311-03

47

Maintenance section

Filling capacity

sulfur

note

Sulfur content is controlled by emission regulations. Regional regulations, national regulations, or countries

International regulations will require certain limits on the sulfur content of fuel oil. Fuel sulfur

The amount and fuel quality must comply with all current local emissions regulations.

The use of fuels that do not meet Perkins' recommendations can have the following consequences:

Difficult to start, poor combustion, carbon deposits in injectors, shortened fuel system use

Life, carbon deposits in the combustion chamber and shortened engine life.

Tables 37 and 38 give guidance on correct sulfur levels in specific regions

policy. Review all before selecting fuel for specific engine applications

Applicable regulations.

Diesel characteristics

Perkins advice

Table 37

Cetane number

area

EPA

Fuel requirements since 2007

Low sulfur fuel up to (500 ppm)

Fuel with a high cetane number will shorten the ignition delay. This can produce

Better ignition quality. Cetane number taken from a standard CFR engine

Medium fuel oil with cetane and heptamethylnonane content. About the test party

Method, see "ISO 5165".

Sulfur / Power

No higher than 19

Start of kW

Machine, low sulfur combustion

Above 19 kW

Engine

Sulphur fuel

Oil highest (300 highest (1000

ppm)

ppm)

The current diesel cetane number usually exceeds 45. But some areas

You may encounter a cetane number of 40. America is one of them

Areas using low cetane number. Required under average starting conditions

Hexane number is at least 40. May be required when operating at high latitudes or cold weather

Use a higher cetane number.

model

402D-05 and

403D-07

403D-11,

403D-15,

403D-15T,

403D-17,

404D-15.

404D-22,

404D-22T

with

EC

Low cetane fuel is the main cause of cold start failures.

Viscosity

404D-22TA

Viscosity is a liquid that provides resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity varies with

The temperature rises and decreases. This viscosity reduction of ordinary fossil fuels is

Logarithmic relationship. It is often called kinematic viscosity. This is a dynamic viscosity

Divide by the quotient of density. Kinematic viscosity is usually based on standard temperature

The reading of the force flow viscometer is determined. For test method, please

See "ISO 3104".

No regulatory requirements

Region

Sulfur limit below 4000 ppm

Table 38

area

EPA

Fuel requirements since 2010

Ultra-low sulfur fuel up to (15 ppm)

Fuel viscosity is important because the fuel lubricates the fuel system components

Agent's role. Fuel must be available in extremely cold and hot temperatures

Have sufficient viscosity to lubricate the fuel system. If fuel is injected into the injection pump

If the kinematic viscosity is less than 1.4 cSt, the fuel injection pump will be damaged. This

Damage may be excessive abrasion and seizure. Low viscosity may cause heat

The machine has difficulty restarting, stalling, or has poor performance. High viscosity possible

Causes the pump to freeze.

Sulfur / Power

No higher than 37

Start of kW

Machine, ultra-low fuel

Oil highest (10

ppm)

Above 37 kW

Engine

Low sulfur fuel

Highest (300

ppm)

EC

model

402D-05,

403D-07,

403D-11,

403D-15,

403D-15T,

403D-17,

404D-15

404D-22,

404D-22T

with

Perkins recommends the kinematic viscosity of the fuel and the fuel transport to the injection pump.

The kinematic viscosities are 1.4 and 4.5 mm2 / sec.

404D-22TA

density

No regulatory requirements

Region

Sulfur limit below 4000 ppm

Density is the mass of a unit volume of fuel at a specific temperature. This parameter is straight

This in turn affects engine performance and emissions. This determines the specified injection quantity

Heat output. This parameter is generally used at 15 ° C (59 ° F).

The value is expressed in kg / m.

Use "ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846

In the ISO 20884 "test method,

The sulfur content must be less than 0.05% of 500 PPM. Using "ASTM

D5453, ASTM D2622 or ISO 20846 ISO 20884 "test

When testing methods, the sulphur content in ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) must be low

At 15 PPM 0.0015%. The lubricity of these fuels cannot exceed

Wear scar diameter of 0.46 mm (0.0181 inch). Must be on one

Fuel lubricity test on HFRR operating at 60 ° C (140 ° F)

test. See "ISO 12156-1".

Perkins recommends a density value of 841 kg / m for normal power

Output. Lighter fuels are also acceptable, but these fuels cannot produce

Generating rated power.

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48

Maintenance section

Filling capacity

SCBU8311-03

In some parts of the world, for some application types, it may only be possible

Provide higher than 0.5% high sulfur fuel. Very high sulfur fuels

Causes engine wear. High sulfur fuel negatively affects particulate emissions

ring. Use high sulfur combustion only if allowed by local emissions regulations

oil. High sulfur fuels can be used in countries that do not require emissions regulations.

Group 1 technical parameters (preferred fuel)

It can be considered that this group of fuel technical parameters meet the requirements:

• EN590 DERV level A, B, C, E, F, category, 0, 1, 2, 3

And 4

If there is only high sulfur content fuel, it is necessary to

Use highly alkaline lubricants or shorten the interval between lubricant changes.

For information on fuel sulphur content, refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual.

Booklet, "Fluid Recommendations (General Lubrication Information)".

• "ASTM D975", Grade 2D S15 and Grade 2D S500

• "JIS K2204 grades 1, 2, 3 and special grade 3" fuels

The grade must meet the minimum lubricity requirements specified in Table 36.

Lubricity

• "BS2869 Category A2" Off-Highway Red Gasoline

It is the fuel's ability to prevent pump wear. Oil lubricity described

It is the ability of oil to reduce friction between bearing surfaces. And reduce

Ability to damage due to friction. Fuel injection system

Lubrication properties. Before the fuel sulfur limit was promulgated, it was generally believed

Fuel lubricity is a function of fuel viscosity.

Note: Only when the sulfur content meets the technical parameters specified in Tables 37 and 38

BS2869 is required for several hours. Fuel sampling analysis is required

Check the sulfur content.

Note: As long as the fuel meets the minimum requirements specified in Tables 36, 37, and 38

If required, LSD fuel and ULSD fuel can be used. These burning

Oil lubricity must not exceed wear marks of 0.46 mm (0.0181 inch)

diameter. HFRR must operate at 60 ° C (140 ° F)

Perform a lubricity test. See "ISO 12156-1". use

"ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846 ISO

20884 ”test method, the sulfur content of LSD fuel must be less than 500

PPM 0.05%. Use "ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or

In the ISO 20846 ISO 20884 ”test method, ULSD fuel contains

Sulfur content must be less than 0.0015% of 15 PPM.

Lubricity to current low viscosity fuels, low sulfur fuels and low aromatics

Fossil fuels have special significance. These fuels are designed to meet strict

Only the exhaust gas emission standards are produced. A diesel lubrication has been developed

Test method for performance measurement based on 60 ° C (140 ° F) downtime

HFRR method. For test methods, see "ISO 12156

Part 1 and CEC Document F06-A-96 ".

Lubricity must not exceed a wear scar of 0.46 mm (0.0181 inch)

path. Must be on an HFRR operating at 60 ° C (140 ° F)

Perform a fuel lubricity test. See "ISO 12156-1".

Group 2 technical parameters (approved fuel)

Fuel additives enhance the lubricity of the fuel. If you need fuel

Dosing, please contact your fuel supplier. Your fuel supplier

Advice can be provided on the use and proper handling of additives. For more

For information, see "Fuel Additives."

It can be considered that this group of fuel technical parameters meet the requirements, but these fuels

May shorten engine performance and reduce performance.

• "ASTM D975", Class 1D S15 and Class 1D S500

• "JP7 (MIL-T-38219)"

Distillation

It is proof of the mixing of different hydrocarbons in the fuel. High proportion

Lightweight hydrocarbons can affect combustion performance.

• "NATO F63"

Note: Only when the sulfur content meets the technical parameters specified in Tables 37 and 38

Only use JP7 and NATO F63 when counting. Must take fuel

Sample analysis to check sulfur content.

Fuel classification

Diesel engines have the ability to burn a wide range of fuels. These fuels

Divided into four groups: see Table 39

Group 3 technical parameters (aviation fuel)

Table 39

This set of fuel technical parameters must be used with appropriate fuel additives

number. This fuel will shorten engine performance and reduce performance.

Fuel grouping

Group 1

Group 2

classification

Preferred fuel

Permit fuel

Product life

• "NATO F34 (MIL-DTL-83133E)"

• "NATO F35 (MIL-DTL-83133E)"

• "NATO JP8 (MIL-DTL-83133E)"

• "NATO F-44 (MIL-DTL-5624U)"

• "NATO JP5 (MIL-DTL-5624U)"

• "Jet A (ASTM D1655)"

These fuels may

Will cause the engine

Shortened life and sex

Can drop

Group 3

Group 4

Aviation fuel

Biodiesel

These fuels will lead

Reduced engine life

Short and degraded

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SCBU8311-03

49

Maintenance section

Filling capacity

• "Jet A1 (ASTM D1655)"

• Confirm that the fuel filter manufacturer has approved the use of biodiesel.

Note: Only when the sulfur content meets the technical parameters specified in Tables 37 and 38

Only use all the above fuels. Fuel sampling must be performed

Analysis to check the sulfur content.

• Compare distillate fuel and biodiesel, provided by gallons of biodiesel

5% to 7% less energy. Do not attempt to compensate for power loss

Change engine power rating. This helps to avoid being an engine

Problems reverting to using 100% distillate diesel.

Note: Use these fuels only with appropriate fuel additives

To meet the requirements. These fuels must comply with Tables 36, 37, and 38

Requirements specified in Fuel sampling analysis should be performed to determine if

Meet the requirements. The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed 0.46 mm

(0.0181 inch) wear scar diameter. Must be at 60 ° C 140 ° F

Fuel (lubricity test) is performed on the working HFRR. See

"ISO 12156-1". The minimum viscosity of the fuel delivered to the fuel injection pump must be

1.4 cSt. Fuel may need to be cooled for delivery to

The fuel injection pump has a minimum viscosity of 1.4 cSt.

• The compatibility of elastomers with biodiesel is still under study.

The condition of seals and hoses needs to be monitored regularly.

• Biodiesel may show low environment during storage and work

Temperature issues. Fuel may need to be stored at low ambient temperatures

Stored in a heated building or a heated storage tank.

Fuel systems may require heated fuel lines, filters, and

tank. If no precautions are taken,

The cleaner may be blocked and the fuel in the fuel tank may solidify. related

Fuel mixing help and the correct cloud point, please consult your

Biodiesel supplier.

Group 4 biodiesel

Biodiesel is a fuel that can be classified as a fatty acid monoalkyl ester. biological

Diesel is a type of fuel made from various fuels. Most common in Europe

Biodiesel is canola oil methyl ester (REM). This biodiesel is taken from

Rapeseed oil. Soybean oil methyl ester (SME) is the most common biodiesel in the United States

oil. This biodiesel is derived from soybean oil. Soy oil or rapeseed oil is

The main oil. These fuels are collectively known as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME).

• Poor oxidation stability of biodiesel, which can lead to biodiesel storage

Long-term problems have occurred. Poor oxidation stability may accelerate fuel system

Oxidation of fuel in the system. For engines with electronic fuel system

This is especially true because these engines operate at higher temperatures.

For oxidation stability additives, consult your fuel supplier.

• Biodiesel is a fuel made from a variety of fuels. in use

Oil can affect product performance. Two fuels affected

Characteristics are cold temperature fluidity and oxidative stability. Please consult fuel

Supplier gets help.

Crude vegetable oils are not suitable for use as compression engines at any concentration

Fuel. Without esterification, these biodiesel gels are in the crankshaft

Tank and fuel tank. These fuels may be related to engines produced today

Many elastomers used in it are not compatible. Prototypes of these bio-oils

Not suitable as fuel for compression engines. Alternative oils for biodiesel

Bases include tallow, waste cooking oil, or various other oils. To put columns

Any oil product used as fuel must first be esterified.

• It is recommended not to use biodiesel or mixed engines for engines that run irregularly.

Synthetic biodiesel. This is because its oxidation stability is poor. If used

Households have made some risk preparations, they are limited to using B5

Biodiesel. Examples of applications where the use of biodiesel should be restricted are as follows:

Backup generators and some emergency vehicles

Note: Perkins engines are certified for use with specified

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and European certified fuel. Perkins does not authorize

The engine uses any other fuel. Engine users are responsible for using manufacturing

The fuel recommended by the supplier, EPA and other appropriate regulatory agencies.

• Biodiesel is a good medium for microbial contamination and growth. Weisheng

Contamination and growth can cause fuel system corrosion and fuel filtration

Device blocked prematurely. Usage and tradition of traditional antimicrobial additives

The effectiveness of antimicrobial additives is unknown. Can consult your

Fuel and additive suppliers, ask for help.

Recommendations for using biodiesel

Pure biodiesel must comply with "EN14214" or "ASTM D675" regulations

Claim. Biodiesel can be mixed in mineral diesel up to 10%

oil. Mineral diesel must comply with "EN590", "ASTM D975" or

"BS2869 Class A2" regulatory requirements.

• To remove water from the tank, care must be taken. Water will accelerate micro-birth

Pollution and growth. Compare biodiesel with distillate fuel, water from

However, it is more likely to exist in biodiesel.

在北美洲,必须从 BQ9000 授权制造商和 BQ9000

认证分销商采购生物柴油和混合生物柴油。

寒冷天气工作用油

在世界其它地区,要求使用适当生物柴油质量实体

授权并认证的生物柴油。

欧洲标准“EN590”包括气候决定的要求和各种选项。

每个国家适用的选项不一。 极地气候和极端冬季气

候分为5 类。 0, 1, 2, 3 和4.

注: 如果使用生物柴油或任何混合生物柴油,用户有

责任为符合排放标准认证的珀金斯发动机使用生物

柴油取得必要的本地、地区豁免和/或国家豁免。 can

以使用符合“EN14214”要求的生物柴油。 Biodiesel

必须以规定的最高百分比与符合要求的馏出柴油混

合使用。 但是,必须遵守下列操作建议:

可以在温度低至 −44 °C (−47.2 °F) 下使用符合

“EN590” 类别4 要求的燃油。 有关燃油物理性质的

详细判别,请参阅“EN590”。

可以在低于−18 °C (−0.4 °F) 的极低温度下使用美国

使用的“ASTM D975 等级1-D S15 或S500” 柴油。

• 换油周期可受使用生物柴油的影响 使用保养机油

分析监测发动机机油的状况。 使用保养机油分析

还可以确定最佳的换油周期。

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50

保养部分

加注容量

SCBU8311-03

在极冷环境条件下,您还可以使用表 40 中列出的燃

油。 这些燃油专门用于温度低至 −54 °C (−65.2 °F)

的环境。

表40

轻质馏出燃油

grade

(1)

Technical Parameters

“MIL-DTL-5624U”

“MIL-DTL-83133E”

“ASTM D1655”

JP-5

JP-8

Jet-A-1

(1) 这些燃油可以随适当的燃油添加剂一起使用,燃油必须符合

表36、37 和38 中规定的最低要求。 应进行燃油取样分析以

确定是否符合要求。 在HFFR 上测试时燃油的润滑性不能超

过0.46 mm 的磨痕直径。 必须在60 °C 下进行测试。 请参

阅“ISO 12156-1”。 输送到喷油泵的燃油最低粘度必须为 1.4

cSt。 可能需要对燃油进行冷却才能使输送到喷油泵的燃油保

持最低粘度为 1.4 cSt。

在发动机曲轴箱或燃油箱中将酒精或汽油与柴油混合

会产生爆炸性混合物。 不能使用酒精或汽油稀释柴

油。 否则,可能会造成人身伤亡。

政府和技术学会也发布了许多其它柴油技术参数。

通常,这些技术参数不会论及本表 36、37 和38 中

述及的所有要求。 为确保发动机的最佳性能,在发

动机运行前应该取得完整的燃油分析。 燃油分析应

包括表36、37 和38 中规定的所有特性。

fuel additive

建议一般不要使用补充用柴油添加剂。 这是因为会

对燃油系统或发动机带来潜在损坏。 您的燃油供应

商或燃油制造商将添加适当的补充用柴油添加剂。

珀金斯认可某些特殊环境下可能需要使用添加剂的

实际情况。 需要小心使用燃油添加剂。 因为该添加

剂可能与燃油不兼容。有些添加剂可能会沉淀。 plus

入添加剂会在燃油系统中引起沉淀物。 这些沉淀物

可能引起卡塞。 有些添加剂可能具有腐蚀性,有些

添加剂可能对燃油系统中的人造橡胶有害。 有些添

加剂可能会使燃油含硫量升高到 EPA 或其它管理部

门允许的最大值以上。 如果需要燃油添加剂,请与

您的燃油供应商联系。 您的燃油供应商会提出最适

宜的燃油添加剂和正确的处理程度。

注: 如果需要使用添加剂,最好是您的燃油供应商对

燃油做处理。 处理后的燃油必须符合表 36、37 和

38 中规定的要求。

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SCBU8311-03

51

保养部分

Maintenance advice

Maintenance advice

释放系统压力

cooling system

i03826053

在配备电子控制装置的发动机上

进行焊接

i03826056

note

一些制造厂商建议不要在底盘机架或导轨上进行焊

接,因为这样可能导致机架强度降低。 有关在底盘机

架或导轨上进行焊接的相关事宜,请咨询相应的原设

备制造商(OEM) 或您的帕金斯经销商。

有压力的系统: 热的冷却液能造成严重的烫伤。 in order to

打开盖子,要停机,等候散热器冷下来。 然后慢慢

松开盖子,释放压力。

为避免损坏发动机的 ECM、传感器和相关零部件,

必须采用正确的焊接程序。 如条件允许,请先将零

部件从设备上拆下,然后再焊接零部件。 如果无法

拆下零部件,则对配备有帕金斯电控发动机的设备

进行焊接时,必须按照以下程序进行操作。 下面程

序被认为是在零部件上焊接的最安全程序。 该程序

应该提供电控零部件损坏的最小风险。

为释放冷却液系统的压力,需关停发动机。 使冷

却系统压力盖冷却。 慢慢拆下冷却系统压力盖,

以释放压力。

Fuel System

note

不要将电焊机的地线接至电气部件如电子控制模块

(ECM)或传感器上。 接地不当可能会导致传动系、轴

承、液压零部件、电气零部件和其他零部件损坏。

为释放燃油系统的压力,需关停发动机。

高压燃油管(如有配备)

切勿通过机组的中线将焊接设备接地。 接地不当可

能会导致轴承、曲轴、转子轴和其他零部件损坏。

用焊接机的地线夹子夹住要焊接的零部件。 尽可能

将夹子夹在焊接点附近。 这将有助于减少损坏的可

能性。

接触高压燃油可能导致液体渗透和烧伤危险。 high pressure

燃油溢出可能会产生火灾。 如果不遵循检查、保养和

维修指南,可能会造成人身伤亡。

注: 在没有爆炸危险的区域来进行焊接作业。

高压燃油管包括高压燃油泵与高压燃油歧管之间的

燃油管以及燃油歧管与缸盖之间的燃油管。 这些燃

油管与其它燃油系统上的燃油管是不同的。

1. 停止发动机。 将开关控制的电源转到断开 (OFF)

位置。

这是由于下述情况造成的:

• 高压燃油管始终充满高压。

2. 把蓄电池负极电缆与蓄电池分开。 如果提供了蓄

电池断开开关,打开开关。

3. 将J1/P1 和J2/P2 接头从ECM 上断开。 将线

束移至不会意外移回且不会与任何 ECM 销接触

的位置。

• 高压燃油管的内部压力比燃油系统的其它部分要

high.

维护或修理发动机燃油管之前,先进行以下操作:

1. 停止发动机。

2. 等待10 分钟。

不要松开高压燃油管来排出燃油系统的空气压力。

发动机机油

为释放润滑系统的压力,需关停发动机。

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


52

保养部分

Maintenance advice

SCBU8311-03

g01143634

图31

4. 将焊接接地电缆直接连接到要焊接的部位。 将接

地电缆尽可能地靠近焊接点,以减少焊接电流损坏

轴承、液压部件、电气部件及接地带的可能性。

注: 如果电气/电子部件用作焊接接地,或电气/电子

部件位于焊接接地与焊接点之间,则来自焊接点的

电流就会严重地损坏部件。

5. 保护接线线束,避免焊接碎片和溅落物。

6. 使用标准焊接惯例来焊接。

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SCBU8311-03

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保养部分

保养周期表

i04890704

每3000个工作小时

保养周期表

冷却系统水温调节器 - 更换............................... 61

燃油喷油器- 测试/更换 .................................... 68

水泵- 检查...................................................... 79

需要时即进行的保养

每4000工作小时

蓄电池- 更换................................................... 56

蓄电池或蓄电池电缆 - 断开............................... 57

发动机- 清洁................................................... 62

发动机空气滤清器滤芯(双滤芯) - 清洁/更换 ....... 62

发动机空气滤清器滤芯(双滤芯) - 清洁/更换 ....... 64

燃油系统- 充油 ............................................... 69

恶劣条件作业- 检查......................................... 77

后冷器芯- 清洁/测试........................................ 54

每6000个工作小时或3年

冷却系统冷却液(市售重载) - 更换 ................. 57

每12000个工作小时数或每6年的保养

冷却系统冷却液[长效冷却液(ELC)] - 更换 .......... 58

每天的保养

冷却系统冷却液液位 - 检查............................... 60

被驱动设备- 检查 ............................................ , ; 62

发动机空气滤清器保养指示器 - 检查 ................. 65

发动机空气预滤器 - 检查/清洁 .......................... 65

发动机机油油位 - 检查..................................... 66

燃油系统粗滤器/油水分离器 - 放水.................... 74

围绕检查......................................................... 78

每50个工作小时或 每周一次的保养

燃油箱中的水和沉渣 - 排放............................... 75

每250工作小时或6个月

交流发电机和风扇皮带 - 检查/调整.................... 55

每500个工作小时的保养

燃油系统滤清器-更换 ..................................... 72

每500个工作小时或1年

蓄电池电解液液位 - 检查.................................. 56

冷却系统冷却液补充添加剂(SCA) - 测试/添加 .... 61

发动机空气滤清器滤芯(双滤芯) - 清洁/更换 ....... 62

发动机空气滤清器滤芯(双滤芯) - 清洁/更换 ....... 64

发动机机油和滤清器 - 更换............................... 67

软管和卡箍- 检查/更换 .................................... 75

散热器- 清洁................................................... 76

Every 1000 working hours

交流发电机和风扇皮带 - 更换 ........................... 56

发动机气门间隙 - 检查/调整.............................. 68

涡轮增压器- 检查 ............................................ 78

每2000工作小时

后冷器芯- 检查 ............................................... 54

交流发电机- 检查 ............................................ 54

发动机曲轴箱通气阀 – 更换.............................. 65

发动机安装支座 - 检查..................................... 66

起动马达- 检查 ............................................... 77

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


54

SCBU8311-03

保养部分

后冷器芯 - 清洁/测试

i03826055

i03826059

后冷器芯- 清洁/测试

(空对空后冷器)

后冷器芯- 检查

注: 根据作业环境影响的情况调整清洁工作的频率。

1. 拆下芯子。 有关正确的拆卸程序,请参见 OEM

资料。

就下列项目检查后冷器: 损坏的散热片, 腐蚀, 污

垢, 油脂, 昆虫, 树叶, 机油和其他碎屑. 必要时清

洁后冷器。

2. 将后冷却器芯子倒置,以便倒掉碎屑。

对于空对空后冷器,清洁方法与散热器相同。

高压空气会造成人身伤害。

高压空气会造成人身伤害。

不按下面的适当步骤进行操作会造成人身伤害。 Make

用压缩空气时,戴防护面罩及穿防护服。

不按下面的适当步骤进行操作会造成人身伤害。 Make

用压缩空气时,戴防护面罩及穿防护服。

用做清洗用途时, 喷嘴处最大空气压力必须低

于205 kPa (30 psi) 。

用做清洗用途时, 喷嘴处最大空气压力必须低

于205 kPa (30 psi) 。

3. 压缩空气是清除松动碎屑的首选方法。 将压缩空

气对着散热片气流相反的方向吹。 保持喷嘴距叶

片大约6 毫米(.25 英寸)的距离。 缓慢移动喷气

嘴,移动方向与管平行。 这将清除管子之间的碎

屑。

清洁后,起动发动机并将发动机加速至高怠速。 This

有助于清除碎屑和干燥芯子。 Stop the engine.在芯子

的后方放置一个灯泡可检查芯子是否清洁。 necessary

时重复清洁步骤。

4. 加压水也可用于进行清洗。 清洗用的最大水压

必须低于275 kPa (40 psi)。 用高压水来软化污

泥。 从两侧清洁芯子。

检查叶片有无损坏。 弯曲的叶片可用“梳刀”梳开。

注: 如果修理或更换了后冷器的零件,高度推荐进

行渗漏测试。

note

不要用高浓度的腐蚀性清洁剂来清洗芯子。 High concentration

腐蚀性清洁剂会腐蚀芯子内部的金属从而引起渗漏。

只使用推荐浓度的清洗剂。

检查以下零部件是否处于良好状态: 焊接件, 安装

支架, 空气管路, 连接处, 卡箍和密封件. 必要时进

行修理。

5. 用适当的清洁剂反冲洗芯子。

i04651969

6. 用蒸汽清洗芯子,以便清除所有残留物。 冲洗后

冷器芯的散热片。 去除其它积存的碎屑。

交流发电机 - 检查

7. 用热的肥皂水清洗芯子。 用清洁水彻底冲洗芯

子。

Perkins recommends checking the alternator regularly.检查交流发电机接

头是否松动以及蓄电池是否正常充电。 在发动机运转

过程中,检查电流表(如有配备),以确保蓄电池和

/或电气系统正常的工作性能。 Make repairs as needed.

8. 用压缩空气吹干芯子。 让压缩空气沿空气正常

流动的反方向吹。

9. 检查后冷器芯,确保它已干净。 加压测试芯子。

必要时,修理芯子。

Check that the alternator and battery are charging properly. in case

蓄电池充电正常,电流表读数应该几乎为零。 all

蓄电池都应保持充电状态。 蓄电池应保暖,因为温

度会影响盘车功率。 如果蓄电池太冷,蓄电池将无

法盘机。 When the engine is not running for a long time or only for a short time

The battery may not be fully charged at this time.充电低的蓄电池比充足

电的蓄电池更容易冻结。

10. 安装芯子。 有关正确的安装程序,请参见 OEM

资料。

11. 清洁后,起动发动机并将发动机加速至高怠速。

这有助于清除碎屑和干燥芯子。 Stop the engine. in

芯子的后方放置一个灯泡可检查芯子是否清洁。

必要时重复清洁步骤。

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


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保养部分

交流发电机和风扇皮带 - 检查/调整

Adjustment

i03840676

交流发电机和风扇皮带 - 检查/

Adjustment

an examination

为使发动机性能最大化,检查传动皮带是否磨损和

断裂。 Replace damaged or worn belts.

对于需要多根传动皮带的应用,要更换相配的整组

传动皮带。 只更换一组中的一条皮带,由于旧皮带

已被拉伸,会使新皮带承受更多的负载。 额外负载

就会加到新皮带上,从而造成皮带断裂。

如果皮带过松,振动会引起皮带和皮带轮不必要的

磨损。 A slack belt may slip and cause overheating.

要精确检查皮带紧度,需使用合适的量规。

g01091158

图33

Typical example

(1) 调整螺栓

(2) 安装螺栓

1. 松开安装螺栓(2)和调整螺栓(1)。

2. 移动交流发动机以增加或降低皮带张紧度。

3. 拧紧调节螺栓(1)。 拧紧安装螺栓 (2)。 有关正确

的扭矩设置,请参阅《技术参数手册》。

g01003936

图32

Typical example

(1) Burroughs 量规

在交流发电机与曲轴皮带轮间皮带的中央安装量规

(1),检查皮带张力。 新皮带正确的张力应为 400 N

(90 lb) 至489 N (110 lb)。 在额定转速下用过不少

于30 分钟的皮带正确的张力应为 267 N (60 lb) 至

356 N (80 lb)。

如果安装了双皮带,检查并调整两条皮带的张力。

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE

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