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Products
Perkins 404F-E22T and 404F-E22TA Industrial Engine Maintenance Operation Manual I


Detailed Description:

Operation and Maintenance Manual

404F-E22T and 404F-E22TA industrial engines

ER (Engine)

EQ (engine)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


Important safety matters

Most accidents in the operation, maintenance and repair of the product are caused by failure to observe basic safety rules or precautions. If it works

Therefore, before the occurrence of various potential dangers, accidents can often be avoided. Staff must be alerted to potential dangers

Report. Staff must also be trained to acquire the necessary skills and the proper use of tools.

Improper handling, lubrication, maintenance or repair of the product is dangerous and can cause personal injury or death.

You must read and understand the information on the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair of the product before performing these tasks.

Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. Failure to heed these warnings will give you or others

Causes personal injury or death.

Identify hazards with "safety warning symbols" and "mark text" such as "danger", "warning", or "beware". The Warning label is shown below.

The meaning of the safety warning symbol is as follows:

note! Be alert! It's about your safety.

Below the warnings are described dangerous situations, some written in words and some graphically.

Operations that can cause product damage are indicated on the product and in this manual by the "Caution" sticker.

Not every situation that could be dangerous can be expected. Therefore, the warnings presented in this manual and the product do not cover all

Happening. If tools, procedures, work methods or techniques are not specifically recommended by Perkins, you must protect yourself and yourself

The safety of others. Also ensure that the method of operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair procedures you choose will not damage the product or cause unsafe conditions.

The materials, technical specifications and diagrams in this manual have been compiled based on information available at the time of writing. Listed technical specifications, torque, pressure

Forces, measured values, adjusted values, charts, and other items are subject to change at any time, and these changes will affect the repair of the product. So in progress

Before carrying out various operations, you must obtain complete and up-to-date information. The agent has the latest information.

When this product needs to be replaced, it is recommended to use

Perkins original parts or parts of the same technical specification

Pieces. The same technical specifications include, but are not limited to, overall dimensions,

Type, strength and material.

Ignoring this warning can cause premature failure, product damage, or even human

Casualties.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

3

table of Contents

table of Contents

Engine shutdown ... ... 39

Maintenance chapter

Preface ... .................. 4

Security section

Filling capacity .................. ........... 40

Maintenance recommendations ... .......... 49

Maintenance schedule ... ....... 52

Warranty section

Safety Signs................................................ ............ 5

General hazard information ... ...... 8

Preventing burns ... .......... 10

Fire protection and explosion protection ............... ........ 11

Preventing bruises and cuts ... ... 13

Up and down equipment ............... ........ 13

High-pressure fuel pipe .................. ....... 13

Before starting the engine ............... .... 15

Engine start ............ ... 15

Engine shutdown ... ... 15

Electrical System................................................ .......... 15

Engine electronics ... 16

Product information data section

Warranty information ............... .... 72

Reference section

References ...................................... .......... 73

Index section

index................................................. ...... 74

Overview ... ... 18

Product identification information ............... 21

Operation part

Lifting and storage ... ....... twenty three

Functional parts and controls ...

Engine diagnostics ... ... 30

Engine start ............ ... 31

Engine operation ... ... 34

Post-processing operations ... ....... 35

Cold weather operation ... .... 36

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


4

SCBU9075

Foreword

Foreword

Perkins authorized agents or Perkins distributors can help you

The operating environment of the machine needs to adjust your maintenance plan.

reference

Overhaul

This manual contains safety information, operating instructions, lubrication and maintenance information.

This manual should be stored in a folder or file near the engine

Place. Read, analyze and compare this manual with documents and engine information

put it together.

In addition to the overhaul time and maintenance items during this cycle,

Details of the overhaul of the engine are not included in the maintenance manual. Perkins only

Only authorized personnel can carry out overhaul. Perkins agents and Perkins points

Distributors can provide multiple options for overhaul procedures. If you encounter major

When the engine fails, there are many options for overhaul after failure. versus

Contact a Perkins agent or a Perkins distributor to obtain these parties

case.

English is the primary language for all Perkins publications. Use english

Be consistent in translation.

Details or optional parts shown on some photos and illustrations in this manual

May differ from what is on your engine. For convenience, some

The shield and cover may have been removed. Continuous improvement and development of product design

Developments may make changes to the engine, and these changes may not be included in this book

In the manual. When you have any questions about the engine or this manual, please ask

Ask your Perkins agent or Perkins distributor for the latest information

material.

Warning in California Proposition 65

California believes that diesel engine exhaust and some of its components

Branches cause cancer, cause birth defects and other reproductive harm. Save

Lead and lead compounds in battery terminals, terminals, and related accessories

Thing. Wash hands after contact.

Safety

The security section lists basic security considerations. In addition, this section

Various dangerous situations and warnings are also marked. In operation, lubrication,

Before servicing and repairing this engine, read and understand it listed in the Ministry of Safety

Basic precautions on points.

operating

The method of operation indicated in this manual is the most basic. They can help

Operators improve technology and skills to operate more efficiently and economically

engine. When the operator gains engine knowledge and masters its performance

After that, operation skills and methods will be improved.

The operation part is for the operator's reference. Various photos and illustrations

The operator inspects, starts, runs, and stops the engine. this

The section also contains a discussion on electronic diagnostics.

maintenance

The maintenance section is a guide to engine maintenance. Illustrated step by step

The instructions are organized according to working hours and / or calendar time maintenance intervals.

For the items in the maintenance cycle, please refer to the detailed description later.

The recommended warranty should be performed at the corresponding intervals indicated in the maintenance cycle table.

support. The actual operating environment of the engine will also affect the maintenance cycle. because

Therefore, it is operated in extremely harsh, dusty, humid or frozen cold conditions

Rotation, may require more lubrication and maintenance times than specified in the maintenance schedule

many.

Maintenance items in the maintenance plan are prepared according to the preventive maintenance management program

of. If you follow preventive maintenance management procedures,

Regular adjustments are required. Perform preventive maintenance management procedures due to

Reduced cost losses due to unplanned downtime and failures, will enable operations

Costs are minimized.

Maintenance cycle

When performing maintenance, you should also do the first few times smaller than the specified time interval.

Maintenance items. We recommend copying a maintenance schedule and showing

Near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also recommend that

Maintenance records are kept as part of the engine's permanent records.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

5

Security section

Safety Signs

Security section

i06565689

Safety Signs

There may be several special warning signs on the engine. Review of this section

The exact location and description of these warning signs. Please familiarize yourself with all safety standards

Chi.

Make sure all warning signs are legible. If the warning signs

Caption or illustration is not recognized, please clean or replace. With a rag,

Water and soap cleaning warning sign. Do not use solvents, benzine and others

Irritating chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh chemicals may

It will cause loss of tackiness of the adhesive to which the safety sign is attached. Loose warning sign

The log may come off the engine.

Replace any damaged or missing warning signs. If there are warning signs

A new warning should be attached to the replaced part

Sign. Your Perkins dealer can provide you with new warning labels

Chi.

(1) General warning

Read and understand the instructions and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Manual

Do not operate the machine before. Failure to follow these warnings may result in

Casualties.

figure 1

g01154807

Typical example

The general warning label (1) is located on the side of the valve mechanism cover. Refer to Figure 2.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


6

SCBU9075

Security section

Safety Signs

figure 2

g03881406

(2) Hand (high voltage)

Exposure to high-pressure fuel can cause liquid penetration and burn hazards. High pressure

Oil spills may cause a fire. If inspection, maintenance and maintenance are not followed

Repairing the guide may cause personal injury or death.

image 3

g02382677

Typical example

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

7

Security section

Safety Signs

Figure 4

g03881407

The warning label for the hand (high pressure) (2) is one mounted on the high pressure fuel pipe

Wrap-around label.

Ether warning

The ether warning label should be installed on or attached to the air filter

near. The location depends on the application.

Read and understand the instructions and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Manual

Do not operate the machine before. Failure to follow these warnings may result in

Casualties.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


8

SCBU9075

Security section

General hazard information

• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry as they may catch

Controls or other parts of the engine.

• Make sure all guards and covers are fixed in the correct position of the engine

on.

• Never pour maintenance liquids into glass containers. Because glass containers

Easily broken.

• Use all cleaning solutions with care.

• Report all necessary repairs.

Unless otherwise stated, maintenance should be performed under the following conditions:

• The engine is stopped. Make sure the engine cannot be started.

• The protective locking device or control should be in the active position.

• Apply the auxiliary or parking brake.

Figure 5

g01154809

i06565656

General hazard information

• Before performing maintenance or repairs, block or restrain the vehicle

Can move.

• Disconnect the battery when performing maintenance or repairing the electrical system.

Disconnect the battery ground lead. Cover the wires with tape to prevent fire

Flowers are produced. If equipped, purify the diesel before disconnecting the battery

Exhaust treatment fluid.

• If equipped, disconnect the single fuel injector located on the valve cover base

head. This action will help prevent high voltage

Personal injury. When the engine is running, do not touch the monomer spray

Oiler terminal.

• Do not attempt to make any repairs or adjustments while the engine is running.

• Don't try to repair something you don't understand. Use proper work

With. Replace or repair damaged equipment.

• For a new engine that is started for the first time or a repaired engine,

Ready for shutdown when overspeed occurs. Can be broken

Turn on the fuel and / or air supply to shut off the engine. Make sure only

The fuel supply pipe is cut off. Make sure the oil return pipe is open.

Figure 6

g00104545

Before servicing or repairing the engine, attach the start switch or control

A "Do Not Operate" warning label or similar. In the hair

Motivation and warning labels are placed on each operator console. necessary

, Disconnect the starter control.

• The engine should be started from the operator console (cab). never

Start the engine by shorting the starter motor terminal or battery.

This action bypasses the engine neutral starting system and / or electrical system

May be damaged.

When servicing the engine, no unauthorized person may

On or around the engine.

Engine exhaust contains combustion products that may be harmful to the human body. must

Start and run the engine in a well-ventilated area. If the engine

In confined areas, engine exhaust should be vented to the outside.

• Tampering with engine equipment or tampering with OEM-provided wiring is dangerous

of. May cause personal injury, property damage, or trigger

Machine is damaged.

Carefully remove the following parts. To prevent splashing of the pressure liquid, take a

A piece of cloth covers the removed parts.

• When the engine is running in a closed place, exhaust the engine exhaust.

Go outdoors.

• Filling cap

• Butter mouth

• Pressure measuring port

• Respirator

• Drain plug

• If the engine is not running, do not release the auxiliary brake or stop

Vehicle braking system unless the vehicle is blocked or restricted from moving.

• Wear helmets, goggles, and other protective equipment as required.

• To prevent hearing damage when working around a running engine,

Hearing protective equipment should be worn.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

9

Security section

General hazard information

Use caution when removing the cover. Gradually release but do not remove

Place the last two bolts or nuts on opposite ends. After removing the last two

Pry the cover loose before removing any bolts or nuts to release spring pressure or

Other pressure.

The maximum air pressure for cleaning must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). clean

The highest water pressure used must be below 275 kPa (40 psi).

Liquid penetration

Even if the engine has been off for a long time, pressure may remain in the hydraulic circuit

force. Failure to release pressure properly can result in hydraulic fluid or pipe plugs

Objects such as these are fired at high speed.

Do not disassemble any hydraulic components before releasing pressure, otherwise

Causes personal injury. Do not disassemble any hydraulic pressure until pressure is released

Parts, otherwise it may cause personal injury. About the release of hydraulic pressure

See the OEM documentation for any steps required.

Figure 7

g00702020

• Wear helmets, goggles, and other protective equipment as required.

• To prevent hearing damage when working around a running engine,

Hearing protective equipment should be worn.

• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry as they may catch

Controls or other parts of the engine.

Figure 8

g00687600

• Make sure all guards and covers are fixed in the correct position of the engine

on.

Always use planks or cardboard to check for leaks. Sprayed under pressure

The resulting fluid may penetrate human tissue. Liquid penetrates into the body

Causes serious personal injury and may even lead to death. Even one

A pinhole-sized leak can also cause serious personal injury. Such as

Fruit oil is sprayed into your skin and must be treated immediately. Looking for familiarity with this

Trauma-like doctor to treat.

• Never pour maintenance liquids into glass containers. Because glass containers

Easily broken.

• Use all cleaning solutions with care.

Contain leaking liquid

• Report all necessary repairs.

When inspecting, maintaining, testing, adjusting, and servicing the product, be careful

Baosheng receives fluid. Before opening any compartment or disassembling any

Before preparing parts, prepare suitable containers for liquids.

Unless otherwise stated, maintenance should be performed under the following conditions:

• The engine is stopped. Make sure the engine cannot be started.

Dispose of all fluids in accordance with local regulations and requirements.

• Disconnect the battery when performing maintenance or repairing the electrical system.

Disconnect the battery ground lead. Cover the wires with tape to prevent fire

Flowers are produced.

Electrostatic hazard when filling with ultra low sulfur diesel

Removal of sulphur and other components from ultra-low sulfur diesel

Reduce ULSD conductivity and increase ULSD's ability to store static electricity.

Refineries may have treated the fuel with antistatic additives. As time goes on

Over time, various factors will reduce the effectiveness of the additive. On fuel flow

Static charges can build up in ULSD fuel as it passes through the fuel delivery system. When exists

With flammable vapors, static discharge can cause a fire or explosion. make sure

The entire fuel supply system of the machine (fuel tank, fuel pump, fuel hose,

Injectors and others are properly grounded and connected. Consult your fuel

Oil or fuel system supplier to ensure that the oil delivery system is properly grounded and

Fuel supply standard for lapping method.

• Don't try to repair something you don't understand. Use proper work

With. Replace or repair damaged equipment.

Compressed air and pressurized water

Compressed air and / or pressurized water can blow out debris and / or hot water. This

This behavior can lead to personal injury.

Wear protective clothing when washing with compressed air and / or pressurized water

Clothing, protective shoes and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles and protection

Face mask.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


10

SCBU9075

Security section

Prevent burns

• If there is no other way to control dust, wear an effective dust-proof surface

With.

Avoid the danger of static electricity when supplying oil. Higher sulfur content compared to earlier

Oil formula, Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) will cause larger static point

Fire hazard. Avoid serious injury or death caused by fire or explosion. Consult

Ask your fuel or diesel system supplier to make sure the fuel delivery system is

Make sure the oil supply standard of grounding and bonding method.

• Comply with rules and regulations applicable to the workplace. In the U.S,

Meet the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

These Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements are available at

Found in 29 CFR 1910.1001.

• Dispose of asbestos waste in accordance with environmental regulations.

• Keep away from places where there may be asbestos particles in the air.

Inhale

Dispose of waste appropriately

Figure 9

g00702022

exhaust

Fig. 10

g00706404

Please be careful. Exhaust fumes can be harmful to health. if you

Proper ventilation is necessary to operate the equipment in an enclosed area.

Improper disposal of waste poses a threat to the environment. Please follow local laws

Regulations to handle potentially hazardous liquids.

Asbestos Information

Use leak-proof containers for drained liquid. Never dump waste

On the ground, in a drain, or in any water source.

Perkins equipment and more shipped from Perkins Engine Co., Ltd.

The replacement parts do not contain asbestos. Perkins recommends using only original Perkins

Replace parts. When you dispose of any replacement parts or asbestos containing asbestos

Follow the guidelines below when chipping.

i06565655

Prevent burns

Please be careful. Avoid inhalation when handling parts containing asbestos fibers

Possible powder. Inhaling this dust may be harmful to your health.

Parts that may contain asbestos fibers include: brake pads, brakes

Brake pads, gasket materials, clutch friction pads and some gaskets.

Asbestos fibers in these parts are usually impregnated in resin or

Sealed in some way. Unless the asbestos dust floats

In the air, otherwise the normal treatment is harmless.

Do not touch any part of the running engine system. In normal operation

Engine, exhaust, and engine aftertreatment

Up to 650 ° C (1202 ° F).

Allow the engine system to cool down before performing any maintenance.

Before disconnecting related items, release air system, hydraulic system, lubrication system

System, fuel system and cooling system.

In the event of dust that may contain asbestos, the following instructions should be followed

lead:

• Never use compressed air for cleaning.

• Avoid scrubbing materials containing asbestos.

• Avoid sanding materials containing asbestos.

• Wet cleaning of asbestos materials.

Exposure to high-pressure fuel can cause liquid penetration and burn hazards. High pressure

Oil spills may cause a fire. If inspection, maintenance and maintenance are not followed

Repairing the guide may cause personal injury or death.

After the engine is stopped, perform any maintenance or repairs to the engine fuel pipe.

Before processing, wait 10 minutes to release the fuel in the high-pressure fuel pipe

pressure. Waiting for 10 minutes will also allow static charging of the low-pressure fuel system

dissipation.

• Can also be used with HEPA filters

Vacuum cleaner to clean up.

• Use exhaust ventilation for long machining operations.

Allow air to drain before disconnecting any pipes, fittings or related components

Pressure in a system, hydraulic system, lubrication system, or cooling system.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

11

Security section

Fire and explosion protection

Air intake system

Cooling system additives contain alkali. Alkaline substances can cause personal injury.

Do not allow the alkali to come in contact with the skin, or let it get into your eyes or mouth.

Motor oil

Sulfuric acid burns can cause severe personal injury or death.

After repeated or prolonged exposure to mineral and synthetic base oils, the skin can

Can be allergic. Please refer to the supplier's material safety data sheet for details

Detailed information. Hot oil and lubricating components can cause personal injury.

Do not allow hot oil to come in contact with the skin. Wear appropriate personal protection

equipment.

The exhaust gas cooler may contain a small amount of sulfuric acid. Use sulfur content greater than

15 ppm fuel increases the amount of sulfuric acid produced. To the engine

Sulfuric acid may spill from the cooler during maintenance. Burns on contact with sulfuric acid

Damage your eyes, skin, and clothing. Always wear sulfuric acid material safety data

Applicable Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) as specified on the form (MSDS). for sure

Follow the first aid instructions on the sulfuric acid material safety data sheet (MSDS)

Bright.

Diesel

Diesel may irritate the eyes, respiratory system, and skin. Long-term exposure to firewood

Oil can cause various skin conditions. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment

Equipment. Please refer to the supplier's material safety data sheet for details

interest.

Coolant

When the engine is at operating temperature, the engine's coolant is hot, and

And under pressure. Radiators and access to heaters, aftertreatment systems or

There is hot coolant in all the pipes of the engine.

Accumulator

The electrolyte is acidic, and it can cause personal injury. Avoid electricity

Solution is in contact with skin or eyes. Always wear protective eyes when servicing batteries

mirror. Wash hands after touching batteries and terminals. Recommended hands

set.

Touching hot coolant or steam can cause severe burns. Vent cooling

Before the system, let the cooling system components cool down.

After the engine has stopped and cooled down, check the coolant level.

Ensure that the filler cap is cooled before opening it. Gavin must reach freehand

Touchable temperature. Remove the filler cap slowly to release the pressure

force.

Post-processing system

Cool down the aftertreatment system before performing any maintenance or repairs.

i06565693

Fire and explosion protection

Figure 11

g00704000

All fuels, most lubricants and some coolant mixtures

It is flammable.

When flammable liquid leaks or splashes on hot surfaces or electrical components,

Cause a fire. Fire can cause personal injury and property damage.

After operating the emergency stop button, be sure to wait 15 minutes before you can

Remove the hood.

Determine if the engine is in an environment where flammable gases can be drawn into the intake system

Run. These gases can cause the engine to overspeed. This may lead

Causes personal injury, property damage, or engine damage.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


12

SCBU9075

Security section

Fire and explosion protection

If the application type involves the presence of flammable gases, consult your

Perkins agents and / or Perkins distributors to obtain information about

More information on when guarding.

Remove all flammable or conductive materials from the engine, such as fuel, engine

Oil and debris. Do not accumulate any flammable or conductive materials on the engine

material.

Fill fuel and lubricants in properly labeled containers and store them away

Away from unauthorized personnel. Store oilcloths and other flammable materials in

Inside a protective container. Never smoke in a place where flammable materials are stored.

Do not expose the engine to any open flame.

If piping, piping and seals are damaged,

Equipped) can protect hot exhaust pipe parts from being sprayed with oil or fuel

Shot. The exhaust heat shield must be installed correctly.

It is forbidden to perform welding on pipelines or tanks filled with flammable liquids. Forbid

Flame cutting on pipes or tanks filled with flammable liquids. Welding

Use nonflammable solvents before connecting or flame cutting these pipes or tanks.

Wash it thoroughly.

The wires must be kept in good condition. Make sure all wires are properly installed and

And securely connected. Check all wires daily. Please start in operation

Fix loose or frayed wires before the machine. Clean and tighten all wiring

Connector.

Figure 12

g00704059

Remove all irrelevant or unnecessary wires. Do not use than recommended

Small wires or cables. Do not place any fuses and / or circuit breakers

Bypass shorted.

Use caution when refueling the engine. Don't move towards the engine

Smoking while refueling. Also not near flames or sparks

Fuel the engine. Remember to stop the engine before refueling.

An arc or spark can cause a fire. Tightly connected, routed as recommended

Wiring and properly maintained battery cables help prevent arcing and

spark.

Avoid the danger of static electricity when supplying oil. Higher sulfur content compared to earlier

Oil formula, ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD fuel) will cause larger static

Electrical ignition hazard. Avoid serious injury or death caused by fire or explosion.

Consult your fuel system supplier to ensure that the fuel delivery system meets the correct connection requirements

Ground and lapping method fuel supply standards.

Exposure to high-pressure fuel can cause liquid penetration and burn hazards. High pressure

Oil spills may cause a fire. If inspection, maintenance and maintenance are not followed

Repairing the guide may cause personal injury or death.

After the engine is stopped, perform any repairs on the fuel pipe of the engine or

Before repairing, you must wait 10 minutes to release the high pressure fuel pipe

Fuel pressure. Waiting for 10 minutes will also silence the low-pressure fuel system.

The state of oil filling dissipates.

Make sure the engine is stopped. Inspect all pipes and hoses for wear or

Ageing. Make sure the hoses are routed correctly. Pipes and hoses must be properly

Support or firm pipe clamp.

The oil filter and fuel filter must be installed correctly. Filter housing

Must be tightened to the correct torque. For more information, see Disassembly

And assembly manuals.

Figure 13

g00704135

The gas emitted from the battery can cause an explosion. Keep fire or sparks away

Off the top of the battery. Do not smoke where the battery is being charged.

Do not use metal objects across the terminals to check

Battery charge. A voltmeter or hydrometer must be used.

Improper connection of jumper cables can cause an explosion and cause personal injury.

For specific instructions, refer to the operation section of this manual.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

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Security section

Prevent crushing and cuts

Do not charge frozen batteries. Frozen batteries may cause

explosion.

Wear protective goggles when hitting objects to avoid eye injury.

When the object is struck, debris or other debris can fly around. Percussion

Before you start working, make sure that no one is injured by flying debris.

The battery must be kept clean. Each battery grid cell must be covered

Lid (if equipped). When the engine is running, use the recommended

Cables, connectors, and battery box covers.

i06565701

Fire extinguisher

Up and down equipment

Make sure fire extinguishers are available. Be familiar with the use of fire extinguishers.

Check fire extinguishers frequently. Follow the instructions on the dashboard.

Do not climb on the engine or engine aftertreatment system. Engine and rear

The management system is not designed with up and down positions.

Diethyl ether

See OEM information for hands and feet to grasp in specific applications

Which locations.

Ether is a toxic and flammable substance.

Do not smoke when changing the ether tank or using an ether spray device.

i06565673

Do not store ether tanks in living areas or engine compartments. Never in

Store ether in direct sunlight or in a place with a temperature above 49 ° C (120 ° F)

tank. Keep ether tanks away from open flames or sparks.

High pressure fuel pipe

Pipes, pipes and hoses

Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike high-pressure lines. Don't worry

Install any damaged tubing.

Exposure to high-pressure fuel may cause liquid penetration and burn hazard. High pressure

Oil spills may cause a fire. If inspection, maintenance and maintenance are not followed

Repairing the guide may cause personal injury or death.

Leaks can cause fire. Contact your Perkins dealer or

Contact your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.

Replace the parts if any of the following conditions occur:

• The high-pressure fuel line has been removed.

• The end fitting is damaged or leaking.

• The outer layer is worn or cut.

• Metal wires are exposed.

• Outer bulge.

• The flexible parts of the hose are twisted.

• The sheath is embedded in the outer layer.

• Displacement of end fittings.

Ensure that all pipe clamps, shields, and heat shields are installed correctly. Installed correctly

Helps prevent engine vibration and friction between parts

Rub and excessive heat.

i03018585

Prevent crushing and cuts

When working under a component, the component should have reliable support.

If no additional maintenance instructions are provided,

Do not attempt to make adjustments.

Avoid all rotating and moving parts. Do not take until maintenance

Remove the protective cover. Replace the cover after maintenance.

Keep objects away from rotating fan blades. Fan blades are thrown or cut

object.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


14

SCBU9075

Security section

High pressure fuel pipe

Figure 14

g03886691

(1) High pressure pipe

(2) High pressure pipe

(3) High pressure pipe

(4) High pressure pipe

(5) High pressure fuel manifold (oil rail)

(6) High pressure pipe

(7) High-pressure fuel pipeline

The high-pressure fuel pipe refers to the combustion between the high-pressure fuel pump and the high-pressure fuel manifold.

Fuel pipe and fuel pipe between fuel manifold and cylinder head. These fuel pipes

Different from the fuel pipe on other fuel systems.

• Check the high-pressure fuel pipe for damage, deformation, nicks, cuts, folds

Marks or dents.

• Do not run the engine during a fuel leak. If a leak occurs

Leak, do not tighten the connector to stop the leak. Connector must be tightened only

To recommended torque. Reference Disassembly and Assembly, Fuel Injection Pipe-Disassembly and Injection

Tubing-Installation.

The reasons for the differences are the following:

• The high-pressure fuel pipe is always full of high pressure.

• The internal pressure of the high-pressure fuel pipe is higher than other types of fuel systems

high.

• If the high-pressure fuel pipe is tightened to the correct torque, but leaks occur

Leakage, the high-pressure fuel pipe must be replaced.

• The high-pressure fuel pipe is first processed and formed, and then according to a special process

For reinforcement.

• Make sure all clips on the high-pressure fuel pipe are in place. Don't

Run the engine when the clip is damaged, lost, or loose.

Do not step on high-pressure fuel lines. Do not deflect the high-pressure fuel lines. Don't

Bend or knock the high-pressure fuel pipe. Deformation or damage of the high-pressure fuel pipe may

Can lead to weak spots and potential failures.

• Do not tie anything to the high-pressure fuel pipe.

• The loose high-pressure fuel pipe must be replaced. In addition, it must be replaced

Under the high pressure fuel pipe. See Disassembly and Assembly Manual, Fuel Injection

Tubing-Installation.

Do not check the high-pressure fuel lines while the engine or starter motor is running. hair

After the engine stops, perform any repairs or repairs to the engine's fuel pipe

Before processing, you must wait 10 minutes to release the

Fuel pressure. Waiting for 10 minutes will also make the low pressure fuel system static

Fuel dissipated.

Do not loosen the high-pressure fuel pipe to exhaust air from the fuel system. This step

It is not required.

Visually inspect the high-pressure fuel pipe before the engine starts. Should go in every day

Perform this check.

If you check a running engine, always use the correct check

Check the steps to avoid the danger of liquid penetration. Please refer to the operation and maintenance manual

Booklet, general hazard information.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

15

Security section

Before starting the engine

i04801644

Engine exhaust contains combustion products that are harmful to the human body. Be sure to pass

Start and run the engine in a windy place. If in a closed

Start the engine in space and exhaust the engine exhaust outdoors.

Before starting the engine

Note: The engine is equipped with a cold starter. If the engine will be severely cold

Under cold running conditions, a cold starting aid may be required. Usually, hair

The motive will be equipped with an auxiliary starting device suitable for the work area.

note

First start of new engine or overhauled engine and starter repaired

When the engine is passing, be prepared to stop when overspeed occurs. This can

This is achieved by shutting off the air and / or fuel supply to the engine.

These engines have a glow plug assisted starter in each cylinder,

Used to heat the intake air for easy starting. Some Perkins engines are available

Cold start system with ECM control

Ether enters the engine. ECM will turn off electric heating before introducing ether

Stuffed. This system is installed at the factory.

i03616502

Engine exhaust contains combustion products that are harmful to the human body. Must be good

Start and run the engine in a ventilated area.

Exhaust air to the outside.

Engine shutdown

Inspect the engine for potential hazards.

Follow Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine Shutdown (Operation Section)

Engine shutdown operation to avoid engine overheating and engine components

Accelerated wear.

If there is a "Do Not Operate" warning on the start switch or control

Label or similar warning label, never start the engine or move any

Control device.

Only use the emergency stop button in emergency situations (if equipped)

Prepare). Do not use the emergency stop button when the engine is stopped normally.

After the emergency stop of the engine, solve the problem that caused the emergency stop

Do not start the engine before.

Before starting the engine, make sure that no one is on, under or near the engine.

Make sure no one is nearby.

If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the engine is suitable for the operating conditions

Pieces. Make sure all lights are working properly.

If a new engine or overhauled engine first starts

Speed conditions to stop the engine.

If the engine must be started during maintenance work,

There are protective covers and all protective covers. To prevent accidents caused by rotating parts,

Use caution when working around rotating parts.

To stop the electronically controlled engine, cut off the power to the engine and / or

Supply air to the engine.

Do not bypass the automatic shutdown circuit. Don't make the automatic shutdown circuit inoperable

use. This circuit is set up to prevent personal injury and also

Prevents engine damage.

i06565677

Electrical System

For repair and adjustment information, refer to the service manual.

i06146252

Never disconnect any charger from the battery while the charger is working

Circuit or battery circuit cable. Otherwise, the

Flammable gases may be ignited by sparks.

Engine start

To help prevent the generation of flammable gases generated by igniting some batteries

Spark, negative “−” cable should finally connect from external power supply to main

Grounding position.

Check the wires daily for looseness or scratches. Before the engine starts,

Tighten all loose electrical connections. Repair before starting the engine

Ok all the torn wires. Refer to the operation and maintenance manual for the tool

Body start instructions.

Do not use an ether-like spray to aid starting. Otherwise it may cause

Explosion and personal injury.

If a warning mark is affixed to the engine start switch or control

Sign, never start the engine or move the controls. Starting the engine

Ask the person who posted the warning label before.

The engine must be started if maintenance work is performed and all

Protective cover, cover. To prevent accidents caused by rotating parts,

Be careful around the work.

Start the engine from the cab or with the engine start switch.

Be sure to follow the operation and maintenance manual, Engine start (operation section

Start the engine in the steps described in points). Understand the correct procedures are

Helps prevent major damage to engine components. Understand the right process

The sequence also helps prevent personal injury.

To ensure that the liner water heater (if equipped) and / or lube oil is heated

(If equipped) is working properly, check the water temperature gauge. In the heater

Also check the oil temperature gauge during work.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


16

SCBU9075

Security section

Engine electronics

Grounding method

To ensure that the engine and engine electrical system work properly, you must use

Grounding strap from engine to rack directly connected to battery. This straight

The connection can be achieved by directly connecting the engine ground wire to the frame.

The ground connection should be compact and non-corrosive. Engine alternator must

Ground to the battery through a wire sufficient to withstand its full load charging current

The negative "-" terminal of the cell.

Both the engine's power and ground connections should be disconnected from the battery

Lead out.

i06565665

Engine electronics

Tampering with electronic system or original equipment manufacturer (OEM) wiring

Installation is dangerous and can cause personal injury and / or engine damage.

Risk of electric shock. The electronic unit injector uses DC voltage.

The ECM sends this voltage to the electronic unit injector. Engine

When turning, do not touch the harness connector of the electronic unit injector. Not comply

Following this instruction may result in personal injury or death.

Figure 15

g03881462

Typical example

Ground to battery

This engine has a comprehensive, programmable engine monitoring system. Electricity

The sub-control module (ECM) monitors engine operating conditions. If any

If the engine parameters are out of tolerance, ECM will take immediate action.

The engine monitoring control has the following actions:

• caveat

• Deductions

• downtime

The monitored engine conditions and components are listed below, which can limit the

Motive speed and / or engine power:

• Engine coolant temperature

• Engine oil pressure

• Intake manifold air temperature

• Intake manifold air pressure

• Engine speed sensor

• Fuel temperature

Fig. 16

g03881463

Typical example

Ground backup battery

• Post-treatment temperature sensor (if installed)

• Electronic unit injector

In order to obtain the best performance and reliability of the engine, it is necessary to

The air system is properly grounded. Improper grounding will cause the circuit to run out of control and

by.

• Engine intake throttle (if installed)

• Sensor supply voltage

Runaway circuits can cause crank journal bearing journal surfaces and aluminum components

damage.

• Manifold fuel pressure (rail)

Engines without an engine-to-frame ground strap may be electrically discharged

And damaged.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

17

Security section

Engine electronics

• NOx reduction system

• Engine aftertreatment system

Engine monitoring packages may vary depending on engine model and application

Variety. But for all engines, monitoring systems and engines

Monitoring controls will be similar.

Note: Many engine control systems and displays are available for Perkins engines.

The display module will work in coordination with the engine monitoring system. These two control systems

Together will provide the engine monitoring functions required for specific engine applications

can. For more information on engine monitoring systems, refer to Troubleshooting

Break and exclude.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


18

SCBU9075

Product information data section

Overview

Product information data section

Overview

i06565650

Model view

The following model views show typical characteristics of the engine and aftertreatment system.

Depending on the application, your engine and aftertreatment may look like

It is different from what is shown in the figure.

Figure 17

g03881488

Typical example

(1) Electric control unit injector

(2) Rear lifting ears

(3) Top oil filler cap

(4) Front lifting ears

(5) Fan

(6) Alternator and fan belt

(7) Fuel manifold (fuel rail)

(8) Lower oil filler cap

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

19

Product information data section

Model view

(9) High-pressure fuel pump

(10) Oil gauge (oil dipstick)

(11) Oil drain plug

(12) Oil filter

(13) Primary fuel filter / water separator

(14) Electric fuel injection pump

(15) Secondary fuel filter

(16) Respirator

Figure 18

g03881489

Typical example

(17) Water temperature regulator

(21) Flywheel

(25) NRS cooler

(18) NOx reduction system valve (NRS)

(19) Throttle valve

(20) Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)

(22) Flywheel Housing

(23) Starter motor

(24) Turbocharger

(26) Electronic control module (ECM)

(27) Alternator

The primary fuel filter (13), fuel injection pump (14) and ECM (26) are free

Equipment supply.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


20

SCBU9075

Product information data section

Device Description

i06565644

Electronically controlled engine characteristics

Device Description

Monitor engine running status. Electronic Control Module (ECM)

The control engine responds to these conditions and operator requirements. These ones

Condition and operator requirements determine the precise control of fuel injection by ECM.

The electronic engine control system has the following functions:

Choice of two models of Perkins 404F-E22T and 404F-

E22TA industrial engines, turbocharged and turbocharged

Air-to-air cooled engine. Both models are equipped with

Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) aftertreatment system DOC aftertreatment system

There are no requirements for maintenance intervals. Both types of engines are electronically

式 控制。 Style control.

• Engine monitoring

• Engine speed

• Fuel injection timing control

• System diagnostics

The 404F-E22T and 404F-E22TA industrial engines have the following features

Sex.

Engine diagnosis

• Inline 4 cylinder

• 4 stroke

The engine has a built-in diagnostic device to ensure the normal operation of the engine system

Make. The operator is alerted by a "Stop or Warning" light. In some

In some cases, the horsepower and speed of the engine will be limited. Can benefit

Use an electronic service tool to display the diagnostic code.

• Two valves per cylinder

• DOC post-processing

There are four types of diagnostic codes: active diagnostic codes, recorded diagnostics

Code, active event code, and recorded event code.

The ECM has features that control the injector output to maintain the desired engine speed

Electronic governor.

Service life

Optimizing engine efficiency and maximizing engine performance depends on

For compliance with correct operation and maintenance recommendations. In addition, it should also

Use recommended fuels, coolants and lubricants. Will operate and maintain hands

The booklet is used as a guide for the maintenance required for the engine.

The expected life of the engine is usually predicted by the average power demand

come out. The average power required is based on the engine's combustion over time

Oil consumption. Reduce full throttle operating hours and / or

Reduced throttle setting results in lower average power requirements

begging. Reducing the number of operating hours will extend the time before the engine needs overhaul

Run time.

Fig. 19

g00296424

Effective use of the engine in accordance with relevant regulations and maintenance requirements

After life (durable emission cycle), the aftertreatment system should function normally

can.

(A) Exhaust valve

(B) Intake valve

404F-E22T and 404F-E22TA engines may be supplied with DOC

Throttle control valve and temperature sensor are present or not installed. This

This difference is due to the evolution of engine design.

Aftermarket products and Perkins engines

Table 1

Perkins makes no mention of the quality or performance of non-Perkins fluids and filters

For any warranty.

404F-E22T and 404F-E22TA industrial engines

Use auxiliary equipment from other manufacturers on Perkins products,

Accessories or consumables (filters, additives, catalysts)

Only this use affects the Perkins warranty.

Cylinder bore

stroke

Displacement

84 mm (3.307 inch)

100 mm (3.937 inch)

2.216 L (135.22861 cubic inch)

18: 1

However, install and use equipment, accessories or consumables from other manufacturers

The resulting failure is not a Perkins product defect. So these

Defects are not covered by Perkins warranty.

Compression ratio

Intake method

Turbocharged and turbocharged air-to-air cooling

Chi

Valve clearance setting (intake)

Valve clearance setting (exhaust)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Ignition sequence

1-3-4-2

Direction of rotation (flywheel end)

Counterclockwise

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

twenty one

Product information data section

Product identification information

Product identification information

Perkins nameplate

i06565651

Location of signs and films

Serial number plate

Fig. 21

g01094203

i03840671

Typical example

Emission certification film

Fig. 20

g03882431

The engine serial number plate (1) is located on the rear of the left cylinder block of the engine.

Perkins Dealer Needs All Numbers on Nameplate to Determine Launch

Included in the machine. This information can accurately identify replacement parts

number.

Fig. 22

g01478138

Typical example

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


twenty two

SCBU9075

Product information data section

Reference section

Figure 23

g01476654

Typical example

Perkins Shibaura Engine Co., Ltd. will provide fuel for each engine

Oil label. Please refer to Figure 23. The device manufacturer must install the device

Install this sign. This is a suggestion made by Perkins Shibaura Engine Co., Ltd.

law. This tag must be affixed to the fuel inlet of the equipment. This way

Complies with EPA regulations. Equipment manufacturers can install other fuels

Signage. If other fuel labels are used, the equipment manufacturer must pass

Perkins Distributor sends a drawing or photo of this sign to Perkins

Pu Engine Co., Ltd. This will ensure compliance with the signage requirements.

i06565681

Reference section

When ordering parts, information on the following items may be required. Find

Show your engine information. Record this information in the appropriate place. complex

Make a record sheet. Save this information for future reference.

Archival records for reference

engine model

Engine serial number

Engine low idle speed

Engine full load speed

Primary fuel filter

Fine fuel filter element

Lubricant filter element

Auxiliary oil filter element (if equipped)

Total lubrication system capacity

Total cooling system capacity

Air filter element

Transmission belt

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

twenty three

Operation part

Lifting and storage

Operation part

Storage conditions

The engine must be stored in a waterproof building. The building must remain constant

temperature. Engines filled with Perkins ELC will have −36 ° C

Coolant protection at ambient temperature (−32.8 ° F). Engine cannot

Used in environments where temperature and humidity vary greatly.

Lifting and storage

i06565642

Shelf life

Equipment lifting

Following all recommendations, the engine can be stored for up to 6 months.

Store the program

note

Keep proper records of the procedures performed on the engine.

Note: When storing the engine, there must be no biodiesel in the fuel system.

1. Make sure the engine is clean and dry.

Never bend eyebolts and brackets. Eyebolts and brackets only

Withstand tension load. Remember when the angle between the support member and the object

When it is less than 90 °, the bearing capacity of the eyebolt becomes small.

When parts must be moved at an angle, use

Constant load link bracket.

a.

If the engine is running on biodiesel, the system must be emitted

And install a new filter. The fuel tank needs to be flushed.

Use a crane to move heavy components. Lifting with an adjustable lifting beam

engine. All supporting members (chain and wire rope) should be level with each other

Row. The chain and wire rope should be as vertical as possible to the top surface of the object to be hoisted.

b.

Fill the fuel system with ultra-low sulfur fuel. For more information on acceptable

For detailed fuel information, please refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,

Oil is recommended. Run the engine for 15 minutes to clear the system

Except all biodiesel.

2. Drain all water from the primary water separator. Make sure the fuel tank is filled

full.

3. There is no need to drain the engine oil when storing the engine. If using positive

Accurate engine oil, the engine can store up to 6

month. For the correct specification of engine oil, please refer to this operation

Operation and maintenance manual, oil recommendations.

4. Remove the drive belt from the engine.

Sealed cooling system

Make sure the cooling system is filled with Perkins ELC or meets ASTM

Antifreeze of the specification D6210.

Turn on the cooling system

Make sure all cooling system drain plugs are open. Let the coolant drain.

Install the drain plug. Put a vapor phase inhibitor in the system. Add vapor phase

After the inhibitor, the cooling system must be sealed. If the cooling system and the atmosphere

Connected, will cause the vapor phase inhibitor to lose its effect.

Fig. 24

g03882471

i06565660

Typical example

(1) Front and rear lifting ears

For maintenance procedures, refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual.

Post-processing

Equipment storage

(Engine and aftertreatment)

No special steps are required. The post-treatment exhaust outlet should be covered. storage

Before, the engine must be closed with a cover and aftertreatment.

Monthly check

The crankshaft must be rotated to change the spring load of the valve train. Turn the crankshaft

Turn over 180 degrees. Visually inspect the engine and aftertreatment for damage or

corrosion.

Perkins damage to the engine during storage after a period of use

Bad takes no responsibility.

Your Perkins agent or Perkins distributor can assist you

Preparations for long-term storage of the engine.

Make sure to completely cover the engine and after-treatment before storage. In engine records

Make a note of the procedure.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


twenty four

SCBU9075

Operation part

Engine and aftertreatment

Disassemble after storage

1. Install the drive belt. For the tension of the belt, refer to this operation and

Maintenance manual, alternator and fan belt-check / adjust.

2. Make sure the engine oil level is correct. Make sure the coolant level is correct.

Make sure the fuel system is filled and filled. For more information please

Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, Fuel System-Prime.

3. Turn on the power and check the operation of the warning light. Start the engine,

See Operation and Maintenance Manual, Starting the Engine for more information

interest.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

25

Operation part

Functional components and controls

Functional components and controls

Gauge indicates engine performance. Make sure the meter is in good working condition

state. After observing the meter for a while, you can be sure of normal operation

range.

i06565683

A significant change in the gauge reading may mean that the gauge or

In failure. Even if the meter reading is within the technical specifications, its reading will change.

Changes may also indicate problems. Identification and correction cause significant changes in readings

For any reason. Contact your Perkins dealer or your

Perkins dealer asks for help.

Alarm and shutdown devices

Cutting device

note

If inorganic oil pressure is displayed, stop the engine. If the engine cools

If the fluid exceeds the maximum coolant temperature, stop the engine. This may cause

Engine damage.

The cutting device is electronically or mechanically controlled. Electronically controlled cut-off device is electronically controlled

Control module (ECM) control.

The cut-off device is set at a critical level of:

Engine oil pressure-after cold engine start, oil

The pressure should be at its maximum. SAE10W30 at rated speed

Typical engine oil pressure is

• Coolant working temperature

• Oil working pressure

207 kPa to 413 kPa (30 psi to 60 psi).

Before starting the engine, it may be necessary to reset certain shut-off devices.

Low oil pressure at low idle is normal. If the load is stable but the meter

When the reading changes, perform the following steps:

note

Be sure to determine what caused the engine to stop. Trying to restart

Make necessary repairs before the engine.

1. Remove the load.

2. Reduce engine speed to low idle.

3. Check and maintain oil level.

Familiarize yourself with:

• Type and location of the cutting device

• Conditions that trigger each shut-off device

• Reset procedures required to restart the engine

Water jacket water coolant temperature-typical temperature range is

82 ° to 96 ° C (147.6 ° to 172.8 ° F). Pressure cold

Maximum allowable temperature of the system at 90 kPa (13 psi)

The temperature is 112 ° C (233.6 ° F). May be higher in some cases

temperature. Depending on the load, engine coolant temperature readings do not

with. For a pressurized system in use, the reading should never exceed

Over boiling point.

Siren

If the engine is running above normal range and steam is generated,

Do the following steps:

note

When an alarm is triggered, it must be taken before the situation becomes urgent

Corrective measures to avoid possible damage to the engine.

1. Reduce load and engine speed.

2. Check the cooling system for leaks.

The alarm is electrically controlled. The operation of the siren is controlled by the ECM.

3. Decide if the engine must be shut down immediately or if it can be passed

Reduce the load to cool the engine.

The alarm is operated by a sensor or switch. When the sensor or switch is activated

A signal will be sent to the ECM. ECM generates an event

Piece of code. The ECM sends a signal to light the indicator.

Tachometer-This meter indicates the engine speed. Under no load

When moving the throttle lever to the full throttle position, start

The machine is running at high idle speed. Under the maximum rated load, the oil

The door lever is at full throttle, and the engine runs at full load speed.

turn.

Your engine may be equipped with the following sensors or switches:

Fuel Rail Pressure-Fuel rail pressure sensor measures the fuel rail

Whether the pressure is high or low. The ECM will check the pressure.

Engine Oil Pressure-Engine Oil Pressure Switch Indication Set

Whether the oil pressure drops below the rated system pressure at the engine speed.

note

Coolant temperature-The coolant temperature sensor indicates the jacket water coolant temperature

Whether the degree is high.

To help prevent engine damage, never exceed high idle speeds.

Overspeed can cause severe damage to the engine. The engine can be idle

Speed without damage, but high idling speeds should never be allowed.

i06565671

Ammeter – This meter indicates the charge in the battery charging circuit.

Electricity or discharge. Meter hands should operate at "0" (zero)

Bit right.

Gauges and indicators

Fuel level-This gauge indicates the fuel level in the fuel tank

Bit. When the "Start / Stop" switch is in the "ON" position

When the fuel level gauge is working.

The gauges on your engine may be different or not available

The following instruments are available. For more information on instrument clusters, see OEM

data.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


26

SCBU9075

Operation part

Monitoring System

Hour Meter-This gauge indicates the running time of the engine.

i06565676

Monitoring System

(Engine warning light)

Table 2

Warning indicator table

Warning light

Connected

Stop indicator

Connected

Indicator status

Light check

Instruction description

Engine status

Operator operation

The key switch is in the on position,

All indicators should light 0.5

second.

电源接通,指示灯检

check

发动机不工作。

如果任何指示灯在指示灯

检查期间不点亮,必须立

即调查故障原因。

如果任何指示灯保持点亮

或闪烁,必须立即调查故

障原因。

断开

断开

断开

无故障

-

发动机正常工作。

no

1 级

点亮(单色)

1 级

激活的诊断代码仍然存

in.

发动机工作,但存在

至少一个诊断代码。

应尽快调查诊断代码的产

生原因。

2 级

闪烁

闪烁

断开

接通

2 级

3 级

ECM 检测到异常状况。

如启用,发动机将减

amount.

Stop the engine.

调查故障。

3 级

发动机状况异常。

发动机将自动停机。

如果未启用停机,发

动机可以工作,但可

能导致损坏。

立即停止发动机。

调查故障。

i06565646

• 大气压力(气压)

Monitoring System

• 燃油温度

• 蓄电池电压

可编程设置的选项和系统操作

如果已选择停机模式,同时警告指示灯已工作,发动机

可能在短到自警告指示灯开始工作后的 20秒钟内停

machine.取决于应用不同,应采取特殊的预防措施以避免

人身伤害。 如有必要,发动机可在紧急操纵停机后重

新起动。

如果选定了警告/减额/停机模式,同时报警指示灯点

亮,应尽可能让发动机停机。 取决于应用类型,应采

取专门的预防措施,以免发生人身伤害。

发动机可以被编程设置为以下模式:

note

发动机监测系统不能保证防止突然的事故的发生。 Make up

程设定的延迟和减额程序是设计来最大限度减少错误

警报和提供操作人员使发动机停机的时间。

“警告”

橙色“警告” 灯将“点亮” ,并连续启用警告信号以便警

告操作员一个或多个发动机参数不在正常工作范围

Inside.

监测下列参数:

• 发动机转速/正时

• 发动机温度和压力传感器

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


“减额”

SCBU9075

27

操作部分

超速(OVERSPEED)

橙色“警告” 灯将“闪烁” 。 警告后,发动机功率减

amount.减额发生时,警告灯将开始闪烁。

如果发动机超出预设的操作极限值,则发动机将出现

减额。 发动机减额通过限制每次喷射的可用燃油量实

Now.燃油减少取决于导致发动机减额的故障的严重程

度,通常不超过50% 的限值。 这种燃油减少会导致

预定的发动机功率降低。

“停机”

橙色警告灯将“闪烁” 。 警告后,发动机功率减额。

发动机将在设定减额转速下继续运转,直到出现发动

机停机。停机后,红色停机指示灯将点亮。 engine

可以在紧急情况下停机后重新起动。

触发后,发动机将立即停机。 发动机可以在紧急情况

下停机后重新起动。 但是,起初停机的原因可能依然

presence.

如果有冷却液温度高信号,将有2 秒钟的延迟来确认

该状况。

如果有机油压力低信号,将有2 秒钟的延迟来确认该

状况。

如需更多信息或维修帮助,请咨询您的Perkins 经销

Business.

i06565686

超速(OVERSPEED)

超速是指转速高于图示的给定发动机转速700 转/分

(RPM)。

• 404F-E22T

• 404F-E22TA

2800 RPM

2800 RPM

i06565663

传感器和电气部件

本部分中的插图显示工业用发动机上传感器和其他电

气部件的典型位置。 具体发动机可能因应用而略有不

with.

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操作部分

传感器和电气部件

图 25

g06013009

Typical example

(1) 进气歧管压力(增压)传感器

(2) 电控单体喷油器

(3) 预热塞

(4) 燃油压力传感器(燃油油轨压力传感器)

(5) 燃油温度传感器

(6) 高压燃油泵的燃油计量电磁阀

(7) 曲轴转速/正时传感器

(8) 柴油氧化催化器(DOC) 出口温度传感器

(9) DOC 进口温度传感器

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操作部分

传感器和电气部件

图 26

g06013027

Typical example

(10) 机油压力开关

(11) 油门控制阀

(12) NRS 控制阀

(13) 起动马达

(14) 交流发电机

(15) 低压燃油泵/注油泵

(16) 电子控制模块

,

(18) 凸轮轴转速/正时传感器

(19) 冷却液温度传感器

(17) 大气压力传感器的通风口

注:有些部件可能没有安装在部分应用上。 DOC 可能

未配备温度传感器。 可能未安装节气门。

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操作部分

发动机诊断

发动机诊断

i06565694

出现活动诊断编码的发动机的运

Row

i06565685

Self-diagnosis

如果发动机正常运行时诊断灯点亮,说明系统已经识

别到不在规格范围之内的状况。 使用电子维修工具来

检查激活的诊断代码。

序列号: ER11–以上

Perkins 电子发动机可执行自诊断测试。 当系统检测

到现行故障时,诊断灯会点亮。 诊断代码将被储存在

电子控制模块(ECM)的永久性存储器中。 通过使用

电子维修工具可以检索诊断代码。 有关更多信息,请

参阅故障诊断与排除, 电子维修工具。

注: 在故障排除前,功率将受限。 如果机油压力回到

正常范围以内,发动机依然可以在额定转速和负载下

运行。 但是,应该尽快进行保养。

应查明激活的诊断代码。 应尽快纠正问题的起因。

如果诊断代码激活的起因已被解决且只有此激活诊断

代码,诊断灯将熄灭。

某些发动机安装了电子显示屏,可以直接阅读发动机

诊断代码。 关于检索发动机诊断代码的详细资料,请

参阅原设备制造厂提供的手册。 或者,请参阅故障诊

断与排除, 指示灯,了解更多信息。

发动机的运行和性能可能会因产生的激活的诊断代码

而被限制。 加速速率可能会显著放慢。 有关更多激

活的诊断代码和发动机性能之间关系的信息,请参阅

故障诊断和排除指南。

现行代码代表目前存在的故障。 应该首先查明这些故

barrier.

记录的代码表示出现下列情况:

• 间歇故障

i06565687

出现间歇诊断编码的发动机的运

Row

• 记录的事件

• 性能历史记录

一次最多可以存储6 个代码。

如果发动机正常运行时诊断灯发亮,接着诊断灯又熄

灭,说明可能已经发生间歇故障。 如果发生了故障,

故障将被记录到电子控制模块(ECM)的存储器中。

如果已存在6 个代码,则发动机仍将对其他代码做出

反应,但ECM 不会记录故障。

自代码被记录后,故障可能已经被排除。 这些代码并

不意味着需要进行修理。 这些代码是存在某一状况的

指南或信号。 代码可能对故障诊断与排除有帮助。

在大多数情况下,不需要因为间歇性代码而停止发动

machine.但是,操作员应检索记录的故障代码并参考相应

Information.以确定事件的性质。操作人员应记录有可

能导致诊断灯点亮的任何观察发现。

当排除这些故障后,应清除相应的记录的故障代码。

• 功率低

i06565658

• 发动机转速限制

• 发动机振动或发动机噪音

诊断灯

该信息有助于对状况进行故障排除。 这些信息也可以

为将来参考使用。 有关诊断代码的更多信息,请参阅

此发动机的故障排除指南。

诊断灯用于指示存在现行故障。 有关更多信息,请参

阅故障诊断与排除, 指示灯。 故障诊断代码将保持活

动状态直到问题得到解决。 通过使用电子维修工具可

以检索诊断代码。 有关更多信息,请参阅故障诊断与

排除, 电子维修工具。

i06565699

Configuration parameter

i06565697

故障记录

系统配置参数影响发动机的排放或发动机的功率。 配

置参数在工厂进行编程设定。 通常情况下,在发动机

的整个寿命期间,请勿更改系统配置参数。 如果更换

电子控制模块(ECM)的话,则必须重新编程设定系

统配置参数。 如果更换了ECM 软件,则不需要重新

编程设置系统配置参数。

系统提供故障记录的能力。 当电子控制模块 (ECM)

产生一个活动诊断代码时,此代码将被记录到 ECM

的存储器中。 通过电子维修工具可以识别ECM 记录

的代码。 当故障排除或故障不再为现行状态时,将会

清除记录的现行代码。

有关更多信息,请参阅故障诊断与排除, 系统配置参

数。

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


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31

操作部分

发动机起动

发动机起动

注:钥匙开关接通期间,指示灯将点亮2 秒,以检查指

示灯的操作情况。 如果任何指示灯没有点亮,请检查

灯泡。 如果任何指示灯保持点亮或闪烁,请参阅故障

诊断与排除, 指示灯电路- 测试。

i06565672

Before starting the engine

2. 将钥匙开关转到RUN(运转)位置。 将钥匙开关

留在运行位置,直到电热塞警告灯熄灭。

在发动机起动之前,进行所需的日常保养和其它的定

期保养内容。 检查发动机室。 此项检查可以帮助防

止日后大的修理。 有关详细信息,请参考操作和保养

手册, 保养周期表。

3. 当预热塞警告灯熄灭后,将钥匙开关转到 START

(起动)位置,以便接合电动起动马达并盘动发动

machine.

注: 电热塞警告灯的操作时间将会随环境空气温度而

变化。

• 确保发动机有充足的燃油供给。

• 打开供油阀(如有配备)。

note

如果发动机数周未起动,燃油可能从燃油系统中泄

掉。 空气可能进入滤清器壳体。 并且更换燃油滤清

器时,一些气泡将被困在发动机燃油系统中。 在这些

情况下,应该充注燃油系统。 更多有关泵注燃油系统

的信息资料,请参考操作和保养手册, 燃油系统- 泵

Note.此外,检查燃油技术规格是否正确,以及燃油状

况是否正常。 请参阅操作和保养手册, 燃油建议。

当飞轮正在转动时,不要合上起动马达。 不要带负载

起动发动机。

如果发动机没有在30秒内起动,松开起动开关或起动

按钮并等待2分钟,在再次起动发动机以前,让起动

马达先冷却下来。

4. 发动机起动后让钥匙开关回到运行位置。

5. 如果发动机未起动成功,重复步骤2 至步骤4。

发动机排气含有对人体有害的燃烧产物。 必须在良好

通风的场所起动和运转发动机,如果在封闭场所,要

将废气排到外面去。

注:发动机不应通过“高速运转”来加快暖机过程。

6. 让发动机怠速运转3 到5 分钟,或让发动机怠速至

水温指示开始升高。 在寒冷天气中发动机起动后怠

速运转时,将发动机转速从1000 rpm 提高到 1200

rpm。这种操作方式能够使发动机更快地预热。 Such as

果安装了手动油门,使用该控制装置使长时间将发

动机转速保持在提升了的低怠速转速的操作更加容

易。

• 如果起动开关或操纵装置上系有一个“不准操作” 警

告标签或类似警告标签,切勿起动发动机或移动任

何操控装置。

• 复位所有关断装置或报警部件。

• 确保已脱开任何被驱动设备。 最大限度降低电气

负载并卸掉任何电气负载。

7. 在低载荷下运转发动机,直至所有系统达到工作温

度为止。 暖机期间,检查仪表。

i06565643

8. 可允许恒速发动机空载达到工作转速。 施加负载

前,操作发动机2 分钟。

寒冷天气起动

i06565669

发动机起动

不要使用类似乙醚的喷雾式起动辅助装置。 否则可能

导致爆炸和人身伤害。

在温度低于−18 °C (0 °F) 时,发动机起动性能将由

于使用水套水加热器或额外的蓄电池容量而得到改

good.

不要使用类似乙醚的喷雾式起动辅助装置。 否则可能

导致爆炸和人身伤害。

当使用第2 组柴油时,以下项目可尽可能减少寒冷天

气下的起动故障和燃油故障:发动机油底壳加热器、

水套水加热器、燃油加热器和燃油管隔热层。

注:起动时不要调整发动机转速控制。 起动时,电子

控制模块(ECM) 将会控制发动机转速。

请遵循寒冷天气下的起动步骤。

注:起动时不要调整发动机转速控制。 起动时,电子

控制模块(ECM) 将会控制发动机转速。

起动发动机

1. 脱开任何发动机驱动的设备。

1. 脱开任何驱动设备。

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操作部分

用跨接起动电缆起动

注:钥匙开关接通期间,指示灯将点亮0.5 秒,以检查

指示灯的操作情况。 如果任何指示灯没有点亮,请检

查灯泡。 如果任何指示灯保持点亮或闪烁,请参阅故

障诊断与排除, 指示灯电路- 测试。

note

使用一个与电起动马达有相同电压的蓄电池电源。 Cross

接起动只允许使用相同电压。 使用更高电压会损坏电

气系统。

不要反向连接蓄电池电缆。 否则交流发电机可能损

Bad.接地电缆要在最后连接并要最先断开。

2. 将钥匙开关转到RUN(运转)位置。 将钥匙开关

留在运行位置,直到电热塞警告灯熄灭。

在连接跨接起动电缆之前,将所有电气附件关闭。

3. 当电热塞的警告灯熄灭时,将钥匙开关转到起动位

彩乐乐网.然后,起动马达将盘动发动机。

在将跨接起动电缆连接到被起动发动机之前,确保主

电源开关是在断电(OFF)位置。

注:电热塞警告灯的操作时间将会随环境空气温度而变

化。

1. 把停转的发动机的起动开关旋转至断开位置。 shut down

所有发动机附件。

note

当飞轮正在转动时,不要合上起动马达。 不要带负载

起动发动机。

2. 将跨接起动电缆的一个正极端连接到已放电蓄电池

的正极电缆端子上。 将跨接起动电缆的另一正极端

连接到电源的正极电缆端子上。

如果发动机没有在30秒内起动,松开起动开关或起动

按钮并等待2分钟,在再次起动发动机以前,让起动

马达先冷却下来。

3. 将跨接起动电缆的一个负极端连接到电源的负极端

子。 将跨接起动电缆的另一负极端连接到发动机缸

体或底盘接地上。 该步骤有助于防止潜在火花点燃

某些蓄电池产生的易燃气体。

4. 发动机起动后让钥匙开关回到运行位置。

5. 如果发动机未起动成功,重复步骤2 至步骤4。

注:起动马达运转前,发动机ECM 必须通电,否则将

6. 应允许恒速发动机空载达到工作转速。 施加负载

前,操作发动机2 分钟。

造成损坏。

4. 按正常的操作步骤起动发动机。 参阅操作和保养手

册, 起动发动机。

i06245647

用跨接起动电缆起动

(不要在存在爆燃性空气的危险场

所中使用本步骤)

5. 发动机起动之后,立即按与连接相反的顺序拆下跨

接起动电缆。

跨接起动后,交流发电机可能不会把严重放电的蓄电

池重新充足电。 发动机停止后,必须更换蓄电池或使

用充电器将蓄电池充电到正确电压。 许多被认为已不

可用的蓄电池仍是可以再充电的。 请参阅操作和保养

手册, 蓄电池- 更换以及测试和调整手册, 蓄电池- 测

test.

i06565659

在蓄电池上连接或拆开蓄电池电缆时可能引发爆炸,

进而导致人身伤亡。 连接和拆开其它电气设备有可能

会引发爆炸,进而导致人身伤亡。 蓄电池电缆和其它

电气设备的连接和拆开程序只应在非爆炸性的环境下

get on.

After starting the engine

起动后,发动机可保持在低转速高达30 秒,以便使

发动机系统稳定下来。 低速运转时间取决于环境温

度,自上次运转的间隔时间及其它因素。

注:在环境温度为0° to 48°C (0° to 86.4°F) 时,暖机

时间约为3 分钟。 温度低于0°C (32°F) 时,可能需

要额外的暖机时间。

不正确的跨接起动电缆连接会引起爆炸,造成人身伤

害。

防止在蓄电池周围产生火花。 火花会引起气体爆炸。

不要让跨接起动电缆端部互相接触或与发动机接触。

当发动机暖机怠速时,观察以下情况:

不要在发动机或起动马达运行时检查高压燃油管。 Such as

果您检查正在运行的发动机,请始终使用正确的检查

步骤以避免液体穿透危险。 请参考操作和保养手册,

一般危险信息。

注:如有可能,首先诊断无法起动的原因。 更多信

息,请参阅故障排除, 发动机无法盘车和发动机盘车

但不起动。 进行任何必要的修理。 如果发动机无法

起动仅是由于蓄电池的状况,给蓄电池充电,或者通

过跨接起动电缆使用其他蓄电池起动发动机。 在发动

机关闭后,还可再次检查蓄电池的状况。

• 带负载运转发动机前,在怠速转速和半最高转速

(发动机无负载)下检查是否有油液和空气泄漏。

该检查在部分应用中可能无法进行。

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SCBU9075

33

操作部分

After starting the engine

• 让发动机怠速运转3 到5 分钟,或让发动机怠速至

水温指示开始升高。 在暖机期间,检查所有仪

表。

恒速发动机应在低怠速运转3 分钟之后,再以工作速

度运转。 如果没有低怠速选项,则让发动机以工作速

度无负载运转2 分钟。

注:发动机运行时,应观察仪表读数,经常记录数据。

比较长期数据将有助于确定每一个仪表的正常读数。

比较长期数据也将有助于发觉非正常运行的发展变

化。 应调查读数中的明显变化。

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操作部分

发动机运行

发动机运行

• 确保涡轮增压器运转正常,以便保持正确的空气/

燃料比。 清洁的排气表明功能正常。

i06565653

• 保持电气系统处于良好状态。

发动机运行

有故障的蓄电池单元会过度使用交流发电机,并可能

消耗过多的电力和燃油。

• 确保传动带调整适当。传动带应状况良好。 More

相关资料,请参阅技术规格手册。

正确操作和保养是获得发动机的最大使用寿命和经济

性的关键因素。 如果按照操作和保养手册中的指示去

做,使用费用可以降至最低,使用寿命可以最大限度

地延长。

• 确保所有软管连接紧密。 连接处不应泄漏。

• 确保从动设备状况良好。

变速发动机

• 冷发动机消耗过多的燃油。 尽可能利用来自水套

水系统和排气系统的热量。 保持冷却系统部件清

洁和得到良好维护。 决不能运转未安装水温调节

器的发动机。 所有这些项目将有助于保持工作温

degree.

在达到工作温度后,发动机可以在额定转速下运行。

发动机在低发动机转速和低功率需求时达到正常工作

温度将会快些。 此程序比发动机无负荷怠速运转的情

况要更有效率。 发动机应在数分钟内达到工作温度。

发动机运行时,应观察仪表读数,经常记录数据。 ratio

较长期数据将有助于确定每一个仪表的正常读数。 ratio

较长期数据也将有助于发觉非正常运行的发展变化。

应调查读数中的明显变化。

恒定转速发动机

应用负载前,使发动机预热。

发动机运行时,应观察仪表读数,经常记录数据。 ratio

较长期数据将有助于确定每一个仪表的正常读数。 ratio

较长期数据也将有助于发觉非正常运行的发展变化。

应调查读数中的明显变化。

微粒排放物的减少

发动机配备有后处理系统,以符合排放法规。 系统使

用柴油氧化催化器(DOC),以符合排放法规。 系统为

被动式,不需要发动机用户进行任何操作。 DOC 不

需要保养周期便可正常工作。

i06565695

燃油省油准则

发动机的效率会影响燃油经济性。 设计和制造工艺为

所有应用类型带来最高的燃油效率。 务必确保使用原

装滤清器。 遵循建议的步骤以便获得发动机使用寿命

期的最佳性能。

• 避免燃油溢出。

燃油受热会膨胀。燃油可能会从燃油箱溢出。 an examination

燃油管路是否有泄漏。 对燃油管路进行所需的维修。

• 知道不同燃油的特性。只使用推荐的燃油。 More

有关资料,请参阅操作和保养手册, 燃油推荐规

Cheng.

• 避免不必要的怠速运转。

关闭发动机而非让其长时间怠速运行。

• 经常观察保养指示器。 保持空气滤清器清洁。

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


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操作部分

后处理操作

后处理操作

i06565668

柴油微粒滤清器再生

404F-E22 系列发动机的后处理系统中没有安装柴油

微粒滤清器(DPF)。

404F-E22 系列发动机使用名为柴油氧化催化器

(DOC) 的不同技术。 该DOC 系统不需要任何定期保

养,并且未包含在保养周期表中。

为使404F-E22 系列发动机符合排放法规,排气将通

过DOC。 气体在这里与催化剂反应。 后处理系统预

期可在发动机的整个寿命期间正常工作(排放持续

期)。 但是,为使后处理系统正常工作,必须遵守规

定的保养要求和规程。

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


36

SCBU9075

操作部分

寒冷天气操作

寒冷天气操作

• 每周检查所有橡胶零件(软管和风扇传动皮带

等)。

i06565649

• 检查所有电气接线和连接有无任何磨损和绝缘层损

坏现象。

寒冷天气操作

• 确保发动机可以在正常工作温度下正确运转,以便

保持所有蓄电池完全充电并且温暖。

Perkins 柴油发动机能在寒冷天气下有效运转。 In the cold

冷天气下柴油发动机机的起动和运转取决于以下各

项:

• 在每次轮班结束时加满燃油箱。

• 每天检查空气滤清器和进气口。 当在下雪天运转

• 使用的燃油的型号

• 发动机机油的黏度

• 预热塞的工作

时应更频繁地检查进气口。

• 确保预热塞正常工作。 请参阅故障排除, 预热塞起

动辅助装置- 测试。

• 选装的冷起动辅助装置

• 蓄电池状况

酒精或起动液会造成人身伤害或财产损坏。

酒精或起动液是高度易燃品并且有毒,如果储存不

当,会造成人身伤害或财产损坏。

• 环境空气温度和海拔

• 应用的附加载荷

• 应用液压和变速箱油粘度

本节将介绍下列信息:

不要使用类似乙醚的喷雾式起动辅助装置。 否则可能

导致爆炸和人身伤害。

• 寒冷天气下运转引发的潜在问题

• 当环境空气温度在0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F) 之间

时,可以采取建议的措施,尽可能减少起动和操作

故障。

• 有关寒冷天气下使用电缆进行跨接起动的信息,请

参阅操作和保养手册, 使用跨接起动电缆起动。 in

的说明。

在结冻温度下发动机的操作和保养非常复杂。 这是由

于下述情况造成的:

发动机润滑油粘度

必须使用粘度正确的发动机机油。 机油粘度影响润滑

特性以及机油向发动机提供的磨损保护。 请参阅本维

修和保养手册, 油液建议以了解推荐的机油粘度信

息。

• 天气情况

• 发动机应用

您的Perkins 代理商或Perkins 分销商所提出的建议

的基础是以往的可行实践。 本部分所包含的信息为寒

冷天气的操作提供指导。

在温度低于−10° C (14° F) 时,如果在起动后立即使

发动机在高负载和转速下操作,则发动机部件可能出

现损坏。

寒冷天气操作建议

推荐使用的冷却液

• 起动发动机后,发动机转速将在最长30 秒的时间

内进行调整。 在此之后,发动机应在低负载下操

作,直到达到最低冷却液工作温度80° C (176° F)

.

该冷却液应向冷却系统提供针对最低预期外界温度的

protection.请参阅本维修和保养手册, 油液建议以了解推

荐的冷却液混合液信息。

在寒冷天气中,经常检查冷却液的乙二醇的浓度是否

正确,以确保有足够的防冻保护能力。

• 达到工作温度将有助于防止进排气门胶结。

发动机缸体加热器

• 发动机的冷却系统和润滑系统不会紧随停机立即散

失所有热量。 这意味着发动机可以关停一段时

间,发动机内保留的热量将会使发动机很容易起

动。

发动机缸体加热器(如果配备)加热燃烧室周围的发

动机缸套水。 这些热量具有以下作用:

• 改善起动性能。

• 缩短暖机时间。

• 寒冷天气到来之前,加注达到正确技术参数的发动

机润滑剂。 请参阅本维修和保养手册, 油液建议以

了解推荐的机油粘度信息。

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

37

操作部分

燃油和寒冷天气的影响

一旦发动机停机,缸体电加热器即可通电工作。 Cylinder block

加热器的电压可为110 V dc 或240 V dc。 输出可为

750/1000 W。 请咨询您的Perkins 代理商或 Perkins

分销商以了解更多信息。

注:切勿限制气流。 限制气流可能会损坏燃油系统。

Perkins 不鼓励使用任何气流限制装置,例如散热器

帘。 气流阻力可导致以下问题:高排气温度、功率损

失、风扇过度使用和燃油经济性降低。

发动机怠速运转

驾驶室加热器在极冷天气条件下十分有用。 来自发动

机的供应管和来自驾驶室的回路管应采取保温措施,

以减少在外部空气中的热量损失。

起动发动机后,发动机转速将在最长30 秒的时间内

Make adjustments.在寒冷天气中发动机起动后怠速运转时,

将发动机转速从1000 rpm 提高至1200 rpm。 这种怠

速运行能够使发动机更快地预热。 如果安装了手动油

门,使用该控制装置使长时间将发动机转速保持在提

升了的低怠速转速的操作更加容易。 发动机不应通过

高速运转来加快暖机过程。

推荐的曲轴箱呼吸器保护措施

曲轴箱流通气体中含有大量水蒸气。 这些水蒸气在低

温环境中会发生凝结,可能会堵塞或损坏曲轴箱通风

system.如果发动机在不高于−18° C (−0.4° F) 的温度

下工作,必须采取措施,以防止呼吸器系统冻结和堵

Stuffed.应安装隔热软管和隔热滤罐组件。还必须将加

热器单元安装到呼吸器系统中。 当在不高于−18° C

(−0.4° F) 的温度下工作时,必须采取这两项措施,以

保护发动机。

发动机怠速运转过程中,施加轻载(寄生负载)将有

助于实现最低工作温度。 最低冷却液工作温度为

80° C (176° F)。

冷却液升温建议

i06245663

使因不工作而冷却到正常工作温度以下的发动机升

温。 此升温过程应在发动机返回到满负载运行之前进

Row.在非常寒冷的天气条件下运转期间,发动机短时

间运转会导致发动机气门机构损坏。 如果发动机起动

后又停机许多次,而没有加以运转以便彻底暖机,上

述情况将会发生。

燃油和寒冷天气的影响

注:仅使用Perkins 推荐的燃油等级。 请参阅本操作和

保养手册, 油液建议。

当发动机低于正常工作温度运转时,燃烧室内的燃油

和机油无法完全燃烧。 这些燃油和机油导致气门杆上

形成软积碳。 通常来讲,这些积碳不会引发问题,它

们可以在发动机处于正常工作温度时被烧掉。

柴油的性能可能会对发动机冷启动能力有显著的影

响。 柴油低温属性必须符合发动机操作中预期会出现

的最低环境温度。

如果为了完全预热而多次起动和关闭发动机但却不运

行发动机,将会造成大量积碳。 这样起动和关闭可能

会造成以下问题:

以下属性用于定义燃油低温性能:

• 浊点

• 气门无法自如工作。

• 气门发卡。

• 倾点

• 滤清器冷阻塞点(CFPP)

• 推杆可能会弯曲。

燃油浊点是指天然存在于柴油中的蜡开始形成结晶的

温度。 燃油的熔点必须低于最低环境温度以防止滤清

器堵塞。

• 还可对气门系部件造成其它损坏。

由于这些原因,当发动机起动时,必须操作发动机,

直到冷却液温度为最低80° C (176° F)。 气门杆上的

积碳将保持在最少。 气门和气门部件将保持自由操

作。

冷滤堵塞点是特定燃油将通过一个标准化的过滤装置

的温度。 此CFPP 给出估计的燃油最低可操作温度

倾点是燃油停止流动及开始析蜡前的最后温度。

发动机必须彻底暖机,以便将其他发动机部件保持在

良好的状况。发动机的使用寿命一般将延长。 lubricating

将会得到改善。机油中的酸和油泥将会减少。 such

将会使发动机轴承、活塞环和其它零件的使用寿命更

长但是,请将不必要的怠速时间限制为10 分钟,以

减少磨损和不必要的油耗。

购买燃油时,请注意这些特性。 考虑发动机应用的平

均环境温度。 在一种气候条件下加油运转良好的发动

机,装运到较冷气候下时可能无法正常工作。 引起问

题的原因可能是温度变化。

如果冬季中发动机功率过低或性能太差,进行故障检

修之前先检查燃油是否析蜡

水温调节器和绝缘加热器管路

以下部件可将寒冷天气下燃油析蜡问题出现的几率降

到最低。

发动机配有水温调节器。 当发动机冷却液低于正确工

作温度时,缸套水经过发动机缸体循环进入发动机缸

cover.然后,冷却液通过环绕冷却液温度调节器的内部

通道回流到缸体。 该返回行为可确保冷却液在低温工

作条件下流经发动机。 在发动机缸套水已达到正确的

最低工作温度时,水温调节器打开。 当缸套水冷却液

温度超过最低工作温度时,水温调节器进一步打开,

以使更多的冷却液流经散热器以散发过多热量。

• 燃油加热器,可能为OEM 选装件。

• 燃油管绝缘件,可能为OEM 选装件。

冬季和北极级柴油可用于冬季严寒的国家和地区。 Have

关更多信息,请参阅操作和保养手册, 寒冷天气工作

用油

水温调节器的渐进式开口可渐进关闭缸体和缸盖之间

的旁通道。 这样可确保流进散热器的冷却液流量最

高,以获得最佳的散热效果。

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


38

SCBU9075

操作部分

寒冷天气下与燃油有关的部件

可影响冷起动和柴油发动机操作的另一重要燃油属性

是十六烷值。 此属性的详细信息和要求见于操作和保

养手册, 油液建议。

i06565641

寒冷天气下与燃油有关的部件

Fuel tank

未注满的燃油箱会出现凝结。 运行发动机后加满燃油

箱。

燃油箱应包括一些从底部排放水和沉积物的措施。

某些燃油箱使用补充管让水和沉淀物沉淀在供油管末

端的下部。

一些燃油箱使用的供油管路能够直接从燃油箱底部汲

取燃油。 如果发动机配备了这种系统,定期保养燃油

系统滤清器相当重要。

按照以下间隔排放任何储油箱中的水和沉淀物:每

周、保养间隔和重新加注燃油箱时。 排放将有助于防

止将水和/或沉淀物从储油箱抽吸到发动机燃油箱。

Fuel Filter

更换燃油滤清器之后,务必充注燃油系统以清除燃油

系统中的气泡。 请参阅操作和保养手册的保养部分,

以了解燃油系统充注的详细信息。

在寒冷天气操作时,主燃油滤清器的微米等级和位置

Very important.串联滤清器、燃油粗滤器和供油管是受冷态

燃油影响的最常见部件。

Fuel heater

注:OEM 可能会配备燃油加热器。 如果是这种情况,

燃油输油泵处的燃油温度不得超过73 °C (163 °F)。

燃油加热器应安装在电动输油泵之前。

请参阅OEM 信息,以进一步了解燃油加热器(如果

配备)。

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

39

操作部分

发动机停机

发动机停机

• 加满燃油箱以防止油箱中积聚湿气。 燃油箱不要

加油过满。

i03018704

note

发动机停机

在本操作和保养手册中的加注容量和建议标题下只能

使用推荐的防冻剂/冷却液混合液。不这样做会造成发

动机损坏。

note

• 让发动机冷却下来。 Check the coolant level.

在发动机一直带着负荷运转的情况下立即停机,会引

起过热并加速发动机零部件的磨损。

• 如果预料到结冻温度,要检查冷却液的防冻保护是

否正确。 必须保护冷却系统,以防其在预计的最

低外部温度下结冻。 如果必要,添加正常的冷却

液/水混合液。

关闭发动机之前避免进行加速操作。

要避免发动机热态停机可增加涡轮增压器轴和轴承的

life.

• 对所有被传动的设备进行必需的定期保养。 此保

养会在OEM 的使用说明书中述及。

注:应用不同,控制系统也会不一样。 确保理解关停

程序。 运用以下一般性准则以便使发动机停机。

1. 从发动机上卸下负载。 降低发动机转速至低怠速。

让发动机怠速运转5 分钟以便冷却发动机。

2. 经过发动机上的停机系统规定的冷却周期后,关闭

发动机,把点火钥匙开关转到断开(OFF) 位置。 Such as

有必要,请参阅原始设备制造商(OEM) 提供的说

Bright.

i03018541

Emergency stop

note

紧急停机控制装置只用于紧急情况。 切勿把紧急停机

装置或控制装置用于正常的停机过程。

OEM 可能已装配了紧急停机按钮。更多关于紧急停

机按钮的信息,请参阅OEM 资料。

确保发动机停机后支持发动机运行的外部系统的所有

部件安全可靠。

i03826057

发动机停机后

注:检查发动机机油之前,停止运行发动机至少10 分

钟,以便使发动机机油有充分时间回到油底壳。

• 检查发动机曲轴箱油位。 保持机油油位在发动机

机油油尺的“最小(MIN)” 标记与“最大(MAX)”

标记之间。

• 如有必要,进行较小的调整。 修理每一处渗漏并

拧紧任何松动的螺栓。

• 如果发动机配备了一个工时计,记录其读数。 press

本操作和保养手册, 保养周期表所述进行保养。

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


40

SCBU9075

保养章节

Filling capacity

保养章节

Filling capacity

(表4, 续)

(2)

冷却系统总容量等于发动机容量与外部系统容量之和。 在本行

中填入冷却系统总容量值。

i06565690

Oil recommendations

i06565664

Filling capacity

一般冷却液信息

Lubrication system

note

切勿向过热的发动机中添加冷却液。 发动机可能因此

而损坏。 应首先使发动机冷却。

发动机曲轴箱的加注容量反映了曲轴箱的近似容量或

集油槽与标准机油滤清器容量之和。 辅助机油滤清器

系统需要额外的机油。 有关辅助机油滤清器的容量大

小,请参阅OEM 技术规格。 关于润滑剂规格的其他

资料见操作和保养手册, 保养部分。

note

如果发动机贮存在或装运到低于结冻温度的区域,冷

却系统必须在最低外界温度下受到保护,或者完全放

掉以防止损坏。

表 3

404F-E22T 和404F-E22TA 发动机

Filling capacity

腔室或系统

Smallest

maximum

note

为了妥当地防冻和防沸腾, 要常常检查冷却液的比

weight.

8.9 L

(9.4 qt)

10.6 L

(11.2 qt)

曲轴箱集油槽(1)

润滑系统总容量(2)

基于以下原因,应清洁冷却系统:

• 冷却系统受到污染

• 发动机过热

(1)

在这些发动机上可以使用多种型式的集油槽。 使用这些数值来

估算加注容量。 使用发动机机油油尺来加注发动机至正确的机

油油位。 Record the results in this table.这些数值是曲轴箱集油槽的近似

容量,其中包括工厂安装的标准机油滤清器的容量。 安装了辅

助机油滤清器的发动机将需要额外的机油。 有关辅助机油滤清

器的容量大小,请参阅OEM 技术规格。

润滑系统总容量等于曲轴箱集油槽容量与工厂安装的机油滤清

• 冷却液起泡

(2)

器及润滑系统加装的其它滤清器的容量之和。 在本行中填入润

滑系统总容量值。

note

切勿在冷却系统中未装水温调节器的情况下运行发动

machine.水温调节器帮助保持发动机冷却液处于正确的工

作温度。 未装水温调节器时,冷却系统可能逐渐会产

生故障。

cooling system

In order to properly maintain the cooling system, the total cooling system capacity must be known.

Approximate capacity applies to engine cooling system.外部系统容量将随

应用的不同而变化。 有关外部系统的容量,请查阅原

始设备制造商(OEM)的规格。 需要知道这个容量

数据以便确定整个冷却系统需要多少冷却液。

许多发动机故障与冷却系统有关。 以下故障与冷却系

统故障有关:过热、水泵泄漏以及散热器或热交换器

堵塞。

表 4

这些故障可以通过正确的冷却系统保养来加以避免。

冷却系统的保养与燃油系统和润滑系统的保养一样重

Yes.冷却液的质量与燃油和润滑油的质量一样重要。

404F-E22T 和404F-E22TA 发动机

Filling capacity

腔室或系统

Rise

Quart

冷却液通常由三种成分构成:水、添加剂和乙二醇。

Only for engines

3.91

4.13

water

外部系统(原始设备制造商配备)

(1)

水在冷却系统中被用来传递热量。

冷却系统总容量(2)

建议在发动机冷却系统中使用蒸馏水或去离子水。

(1)

外部系统包括一个散热器或一个带有下列部件的膨胀箱:热交

换器和管道。 请参阅OEM 技术规格。 在本行中输入外部系统

容量值。

不要在冷却系统内使用下列类型的水:硬水、用盐处

理过的软化水和海水。

如果没有蒸馏水或去离子水,使用具有表5 内所列特

性的水。

(续)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

41

保养章节

Oil recommendations

表 5

可使用的水

注:100% 的纯乙二醇将在−13 °C (8.6 °F) 的温度下

冻结。

characteristic

最高限值

氯化物(Cl)

40 mg/L

大多数传统防冻剂使用乙二醇。 也可以使用丙二醇。

当与水按照1:1 比例混合时,乙二醇和丙二醇提供相

似的防冻和防沸腾保护。 请参阅表6 和表7 。

硫酸盐(SO )

4

100 mg / L

170 mg/L

340 mg/L

表 6

total hardness

总的固体含量

酸度

Ethylene glycol

concentration

50%

60%

防冻保护

pH 值为5.5 至 9.0

−36 °C (−33 °F)

有关水质分析,请咨询以下渠道之一:

• 当地自来水公司

−51 °C (−60 °F)

note

• 农业机构

不要使用乙二醇浓度超过 50% 的丙二醇,因为此时

丙二醇的热传导能力会降低。 需要额外的防冻或防沸

保护时,可使用乙二醇。

• 独立实验室

additive

表 7

Propylene glycol

添加剂帮助保护冷却系统的金属表面。 缺乏冷却液添

加剂或添加剂量不足能够促使以下情况的发生:

concentration

防冻保护

50%

−29 °C (−20 °F)

• 腐蚀

• 矿物沉淀物的生成

• 锈蚀

要检查冷却液中的乙二醇浓度,请测量冷却液比重。

推荐的冷却液

• 水垢

• ELC

• SCA

• ASTM

长效冷却液

补充用冷却液添加剂

美国试验与材料协会

• 冷却液起泡

在发动机运行期间,许多添加剂会耗尽。 这些添加剂

必须周期性补充。

必须添加添加剂达到正确的浓度。 添加剂浓度过高会

引起抑制剂从溶液中析出。 这些沉淀物可能促使以下

问题的发生:

下面两种冷却液用在Perkins 柴油发动机上:

首选– Perkins ELC

• 凝胶体的生成

可接受– 符合ASTM D6210 技术规范的市售重负荷

antifreeze

• 传热的减少

• 水泵密封件的泄漏

• 散热器、冷却器和细小通道的堵塞

note

Perkins 工业用发动机必须使用水和乙二醇比例为

1:1 的混合物。 此浓度允许 NOx 降低系统在高温环

境中运行。

Ethylene glycol

冷却液中的乙二醇帮助提供保护,防止以下情况的发

Health:

note

不要使用仅符合 ASTM D3306 技术参数的市售冷却

液/防冻液。 这类冷却液/防冻剂是为轻型汽车应用而

配制的。

• 沸腾

• 结冻

Perkins 建议水和乙二醇的混合配比为1:1。 这种乙二

醇与水的混合液作为防冻液能达到最佳的重负荷性

can.如果需要提供极冷条件下的保护,水/乙二醇的

比例可提高到1:2。

• 水泵气穴

为获得最佳性能,Perkins 建议使用水/乙二醇溶液

1:1 的混合液。

注:使用将会在最低环境温度下提供保护的混合液。

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


42

SCBU9075

保养章节

Oil recommendations

可以使用SCA 抑制剂和水的混合液,但其防腐蚀、

防沸腾和防冻保护水平不如ELC。 Perkins 建议在这

类冷却系统中将SCA 的浓度保持在6% 至8%。 the best

使用蒸馏水或去离子水。

ELC 冷却系统清洁

注:如果冷却系统已经在使用ELC,则不需要在规定

的冷却液更换周期使用清洁剂。 只有当系统已经被添

加的一些其他类型的冷却液或冷却系统损坏污染时,

才需要使用清洁剂。

表 8

冷却液使用寿命

冷却液类型

使用寿命 (1)

当ELC 被排出冷却系统后,只需用净水冲洗。

Perkins ELC

6000 个工作小时或3 年

在加注冷却系统之前,必须将加热器控制装置(如有

配备)设置在热位置。 请参阅OEM 信息以设置加热

器控制装置。 排空并重新加注冷却系统后,运行发动

机,直到冷却剂液位达到正常工作温度时的液位并保

持稳定。 需要时,添加冷却液混合液,把系统加注到

规定的液位。

符合ASTM D6210 要求的市

售重负荷防冻剂

3000 个工作小时或2 年

市售SCA 抑制剂和水

3000 个工作小时或1 年

(1)

使用首个周期。 此时,还必须把冷却系统冲洗干净。

更换为Perkins ELC

ELC

要将重负荷防冻液更换为Perkins ELC,执行以下步

Perkins 提供用于以下应用的ELC:

• 重载火花点火式燃气发动机

• 重型柴油发动机

• 汽车应用

Step:

note

Care must be taken when inspecting, maintaining, testing, adjusting and repairing the product

To ensure that the drained oil is collected.在打开任何腔室或拆解

任何储有液体的部件之前,要准备好用合适的容器收

集液体。

ELC 的防腐成份与其它冷却液的防腐成份不同。 ELC

是以乙二醇为基础液的冷却液。 但是,ELC 包含有机

腐蚀抑制剂和抗沫剂,并且亚硝酸盐含量低。

Perkins ELC 使用适量的上述添加剂配制而成,能够

为发动机冷却系统中的所有金属部件提供卓越的防腐

蚀保护。

Dispose of all liquids in accordance with local regulations and directives.

1. 把冷却液排放到适当的容器中。

2. 按照当地法规处置冷却液。

提供与蒸馏水预先混合的ELC 溶液。 ELC 混合比为

1:1。 预先混合的ELC 提供低至−36 °C (−33 °F) 的

冻结保护。 建议在冷却系统初次加注时使用这种预混

合ELC。 也推荐在添补冷却系统时使用这种预混合

ELC。

3. 使用33% 的Perkins ELC 溶液加注冷却系统,并

操作发动机,确保节温器开启。 发动机停机,使发

动机冷却下来。 排空冷却液。

注:在溶液中使用蒸馏水或去离子水。

有几种不同尺寸的容器可供选用。 请向您的 Perkins

经销商咨询零件号。

4. 再次使用33% 的Perkins ELC 溶液加注冷却系

统,并操作发动机,确保节温器开启。 停止发动

机,并使其冷却。

ELC 冷却系统保养

长效冷却液的正确添加

5. 排放冷却系统。

note

不正确或不彻底冲洗冷却系统,会损坏铜和其它金属

部件。

note

仅对珀金斯产品使用预混合或浓缩冷却液。

把长效冷却液与其它产品混合降低长效冷却液的使用

life.不按照建议去做会降低冷却系统部件使用寿

命,除非采取正确的补救措施。

6. 用Perkins 预混合ELC 加注冷却系统。 运转发动

machine.确保所有冷却液阀开启,然后停止发动机。

当冷却时,检查冷却液液位。

为正确保持防冻液和添加剂之间的平衡,您必须保持

推荐的ELC 的浓度。 降低防冻液的比例同样也会降

低添加剂的比例。 降低冷却液能力,以保护系统,避

免出现点蚀、穴蚀、腐蚀和沉积物。

ELC 冷却系统污染

note

note

不要使用传统冷却液来添补加注了长效冷却液 (ELC)

的冷却系统。

注意:长效冷却液( ELC)与其他产品混合会减弱

ELC 的效 果,并缩短 ELC 的使用寿 命。 仅使用

Perkins 的预混合或浓缩冷却液产品。 不遵循这些建

议会缩短冷却系统部件的使用寿命。

不要使用标准补充用冷却液添加剂(SCA)。

使用珀金斯 ELC 时,不要使用标准冷 SCA 或 SCA

Filter.

ELC 冷却系统可以承受的最大杂质量为传统重负荷防

冻剂或SCA 的10%。 如果杂质超过系统总容量的

10%,请执行以下步骤之一:

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


SCBU9075

43

保养章节

Oil recommendations

• 排放冷却系统中的冷却液到适当的容器中。 according to

当地法规处置冷却液。 使用5% 到10% 的

Perkins ELC 溶液冲洗系统。 使用Perkins ELC

加注系统。

根据测试的结果添加SCA。 冷却系统的容量决定了

所需的SCA 量。

如有必要,用表11 中的计算公式确定所需的 SCA

量:

表 11

• 按照当地法规排放冷却系统中的部分液体到适当的

容器中。接着,用预混合ELC 加注冷却系统。 this

程序将把杂质降到10% 以下。

保养时向重负荷冷却液中添加SCA 的计算公式

V × 0.014 = X

• 按照传统的重负荷冷却液方法保养系统。 用 SCA

处理系统。 在推荐的传统重负荷冷却液的更换周

期更换冷却液。

V 是冷却系统的总容量。

X 是所需的SCA 的数量。

表12 举例说明了如何使用表11 中的公式进行计算。

市售重负荷防冻和 SCA

表 12

保养时向重负荷冷却液中添加SCA 的示例

note

禁止使用防腐保护系统含有胺成份的市售重负荷冷却

liquid.

冷却系统的总容量

乘数

所需的SCA 的数量

(X)

(V)

15 L (4 US gal)

× 0.014

0.2 L (7 oz)

note

切勿在冷却系统中未装水温调节器的情况下运行发动

machine.水温调节器帮助保持发动机冷却液处于正确的工

作温度。 未装水温调节器时,冷却系统可能逐渐会产

生故障。

清洁重负荷防冻剂系统

• 在排放旧冷却液之后或冷却系统加注新冷却液之

前,清洁冷却系统。

检查防冻剂(乙二醇浓度)以能够充分防沸和防冻。

Perkins 建议使用折射仪来检查乙二醇浓度。 应当使

用比重计。

• 只要发现冷却液被污染或冷却液起泡,就要清洁冷

却系统。

Perkins 发动机冷却系统应当每500 小时测试一次

SCA 的浓度。

i06565652

根据测试的结果添加SCA。 可能每500 小时需要添

加液体的SCA。

Oil recommendations

(一般燃油资料)

初次加注时向重负荷冷却液添加 SCA

用表9 中的计算公式确定初次加注冷却系统时所需的

SCA 量。

• 词汇表

表 9

• ISO

国际标准组织

美国试验与材料协会

初次加注时向重负荷冷却液中添加SCA 的计算公式

V × 0.045 = X

• ASTM

V 是冷却系统的总容量。

• HFRR

用于对柴油进行润滑性测试的高频

往复移动式装置

X 是所需的SCA 的数量。

• FAME

• CFR

• ULSD

• RME

• SME

• EPA

• PPM

• DPF

Fatty acid methyl ester

燃料协调研究

超低硫柴油

表10 举例说明了如何使用表9 中的公式进行计算。

表 10

初次加注时向重负荷冷却液中添加SCA 的示例

冷却系统的总容量

(V)

乘数

所需的SCA 的数量

(X)

油菜甲基酯

15 L (4 US gal)

× 0.045

0.7 L (24 oz)

大豆甲酯

美国环保署

保养时向重负荷冷却液中添加 SCA

百万分之一

所有类型的重负荷防冻剂都需要定期添加SCA。

柴油微粒滤清器

定期测试防冻剂的SCA 浓度。 有关具体周期,请参

阅操作和保养手册, 保养周期表(保养部分)。 cool down

系统补充用冷却液添加剂(SCA)- 测试/添加。

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE

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