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:0574-26871589 Unit sales : 0574-26871589  

:0574-26886646 Accessories Sales : 0574-26886646

:0574-26871569 Maintenance Hotline : 0574-26871569

pass      :0574-26892499 True : 0574-26892499

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Products
Perkins1600 operation and maintenance


Detailed Description:

Operation and

Maintenance

Manual

1600 Series Industrial Engine

XGA (Engine)

XGB (Engine)

XGD (Engine)

XGE (Engine)

XGF (Engine)

XGH (Engine)

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


Important Safety Information

Most accidents tha t involve produc t op eration, ma intena nc e and repair are caus ed by failure to

ob serve basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recog nizing pote ntially

ha za rdous situations before an accident oc curs. A person mus t be alert to pote ntial ha za rds. This

person should also ha ve the ne cessary training, skills and tools to perform the se func tions properly.

Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and

could result in injury or death.

Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have

read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.

Sa fety precautions and warning s are provided in this ma nua l and on the produc t. If the se ha za rd

warning s are not he eded, bod ily injury or death could oc cur to you or to othe r persons.

The ha za rds are identified by the “Safety Alert Symb ol” and followed by a “Signa l Word” suc h as

"DANGER", "WARNING" or "CAUTION". The Sa fety Alert "WARNING" label is shown below.

The me aning of this safety alert symb ol is as follows:

Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.

The me ssage tha t appears und er the warning explains the ha za rd and can be either written or

pictorially presente d.

Op erations tha t ma y caus e produc t dama ge are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the produc t and in

this pub lication.

Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The

warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,

work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,

you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the

product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or

repair procedures that you choose.

The informa tion, specifications, and illustrations in this pub lication are on the basis of informa tion tha t

was available at the time tha t the pub lication was written. The specifications, torque s, pressure s,

me asure me nts, adjustme nts, illustrations, and othe r items can cha ng e at any time. These cha ng es can

affect the service tha t is given to the produc t. Ob tain the comp lete and mos t current informa tion before

you start any job. Pe rkins dealers or Pe rkins distributors ha ve the mos t current informa tion available.

When replacement parts are required for this

product Perkins recommends using Perkins

replacement parts.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-

ture failures, product damage, personal injury or

death.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

3

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Warranty Section

Warranty Information ............ 86

Foreword ....................................... ...... 4

Index Section

Safety Section

Index ............................. ..... 87

Safety Messages ... .... 5

General Hazard Information ...

Burn Prevention ................................................ .... 10

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............. 11

Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention .. 13

Mounting and Dismounting ... 13

High Pressure Oil Lines .............. 13

Before Starting Engine ..................... 14

Engine Starting ................................................ ..... 15

Engine Stopping ... ... 15

Electrical System ... .. 15

Engine Electronics ... 16

Product Information Section

General Information .............................. 17

Product Identi fi cation Information .............. 22

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage ............... . 26

Features and Controls ............... 27

Engine Diagnostics ............... 38

Engine Starting ................................................ ..... 39

Engine Operation ... .. 42

Cold Weather Operation ............. 43

Engine Stopping ... ... 46

Maintenance Section

Re fi ll Capacities ... .... 47

Maintenance Recommendations ..................... 60

Maintenance Interval Schedule ............ 63

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


4

SEBU8455

Foreword

Foreword

Recommended service should be performed at the

appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance

Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment

of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval

Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,

dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,

more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is

speci fi ed in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may

be necessary.

Literature Information

This manual contains safety, operation instructions,

lubrication and maintenance information. This

manual should be stored in or near the engine area

in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,

study and keep it with the literature and engine

information.

The maintenance schedule items are organized for

a preventive maintenance management program. If

the preventive maintenance program is followed, a

periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation

of a preventive maintenance management program

should minimize operating costs through cost

avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled

downtime and failures.

English is the primary language for all Perkins

publications. The English used facilitates translation

and consistency.

Some photographs or illustrations in this manual

show details or attachments that may be different

from your engine. Guards and covers may have

been removed for Illustrative purposes. Continuing

improvement and advancement of product design

may have caused changes to your engine which are

not included in this manual. Whenever a question

arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please

consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins

distributor for the latest available information.

Maintenance Intervals

Perform maintenance on items at multiples of

the original requirement. We recommend that the

maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed

near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also

recommend that a maintenance record be maintained

as part of the engine's permanent record.

Safety

Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins

distributor can assist you in adjusting your

maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your

operating environment.

This safety section lists basic safety precautions.

In addition, this section identi fi es hazardous,

warning situations. Read and understand the basic

precautions listed in the safety section before

operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and

repair on this product.

Overhaul

Major engine overhaul details are not covered in

the Operation and Maintenance Manual except

for the interval and the maintenance items in that

interval. Major repairs should only be carried out by

Perkins authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer

or your Perkins distributor offers a variety of options

regarding overhaul programs. If you experience

a major engine failure, there are also numerous

after failure overhaul options available. Consult with

your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for

information regarding these options.

Operation

Operating techniques outlined in this manual are

basic. They assist with developing the skills and

techniques required to operate the engine more

ef fi ciently and economically. Skill and techniques

develop as the operator gains knowledge of the

engine and its capabilities.

The operation section is a reference for operators.

Photographs and illustrations guide the operator

through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating

and stopping the engine. This section also includes a

discussion of electronic diagnostic information.

California Proposition 65 Warning

Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents

are known to the State of California to cause cancer,

birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery

posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead

and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.

Maintenance

The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.

The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped

by service hours and / or calendar time maintenance

intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are

referenced to detailed instructions that follow.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

5

Safety Section

Safety Messages

Safety Section

i04257112

Safety Messages

There may be several speci fi c warning signs on your

engine. The exact location and a description of the

warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please

become familiar with all warning signs.

Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean

the warning signs or replace the warning signs if

the words cannot be read or if the illustrations are

not visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean

the warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or

other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh

chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the

warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened

could drop off the engine.

Replace any warning sign that is damaged or

missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the

engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on

the replacement part. Your Perkins distributor can

provide new warning signs.

(1) Universal Warning

Do not operate or work on this equipment unless

you have read and understand the instructions

and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance

Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or

heed the warnings could result in serious injury

or death.

g01154807

Illustration 1

Typical example

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


6

SEBU8455

Safety Section

Safety Messages

g02428016

Illustration 2

(1) Universal warning

The universal warning labels (1) are located on the

rear left side of the valve mechanism cover and the

rear right side of the valve mechanism cover.

(2) Hand (High Pressure)

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fl uid

penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-

el spray may cause a fi re hazard. Failure to fol-

low these inspection, maintenance and service in-

structions may cause personal injury or death.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

7

Safety Section

General Hazard Information

g02835016

Illustration 3

(2) Hand (High Pressure)

The warning label for the Hand (High Pressure)

(2) is a wrap around label that is installed on the

high-pressure oil line.

• Tampering with the engine installation or tampering

with the OEM supplied wiring can be dangerous.

Personal injury, death and / or engine damage could

result.

i04257489

• Vent the engine exhaust to the outside when the

engine is operated in an enclosed area.

General Hazard Information

• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other

protective equipment, as required.

• When work is performed around an engine that is

operating, wear protective devices for ears in order

to help prevent damage to hearing.

• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag

on controls or on other parts of the engine.

• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are

secured in place on the engine.

• Never put maintenance fl uids into glass containers.

Glass containers can break.

• Use all cleaning solutions with care.

• Report all necessary repairs.

g00104545

Illustration 4

Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar

warning tag to the start switch or to the controls

before the engine is serviced or before the engine is

repaired. Attach the warning tags to the engine and

to each operator control station. When appropriate,

disconnect the starting controls.

Unless other instructions are provided, perform the

maintenance under the following conditions:

• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine

cannot be started.

Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,

or around the engine when the engine is being

serviced.

• The protective locks or the controls are in the

applied position.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


8

SEBU8455

Safety Section

General Hazard Information

• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance

is performed or when the electrical system is

serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.

Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.

• Disconnect the connector for the unit injector that

is located on the valve cover base. This will help

prevent personal injury from the high voltage to the

unit injectors. Do not come in contact with the unit

injector terminals while the engine is operating.

• Do not attempt any repairs or any adjustments to

the engine while the engine is operating.

• Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood.

Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment that

is damaged or repair the equipment.

g00702020

Illustration 5

• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other

protective equipment, as required.

• For initial start-up of a new engine or for starting an

engine that has been serviced, make provisions to

stop the engine if an overspeed occurs. This may

be accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply

and / or the air supply to the engine.

• When work is performed around an engine that is

operating, wear protective devices for ears in order

to help prevent damage to hearing.

• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag

on controls or on other parts of the engine.

• Start the engine from the operators station (cab).

Never short across the starting motor terminals or

the batteries. This could bypass the engine neutral

start system and / or the electrical system could be

damaged.

• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are

secured in place on the engine.

• Never put maintenance fl uids into glass containers.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion

which may be harmful to your health. Always start the

engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated

area. If the engine is in an enclosed area, vent the

engine exhaust to the outside.

Glass containers can break.

• Use all cleaning solutions with care.

• Report all necessary repairs.

Cautiously remove the following parts. To help

prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fl uids,

hold a rag over the part that is being removed.

Unless other instructions are provided, perform

the maintenance under the following conditions:

• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine

cannot be started.

• Filler caps

• Grease fi ttings

• Pressure taps

• Breathers

• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance

is performed or when the electrical system is

serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.

Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.

• Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood.

Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment that

is damaged or repair the equipment.

• Drain plugs

Use caution when cover plates are removed.

Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two

bolts or nuts that are located at opposite ends of

the cover plate or the device. Before removing the

last two bolts or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to

relieve any spring pressure or other pressure.

Pressurized Air and Water

Pressurized air and / or water can cause debris

and / or hot water to be blown out. This could result in

personal injury.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

9

Safety Section

General Hazard Information

Containing Fluid Spillage

When pressurized air and / or pressurized water is

used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective

shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes

goggles or a protective face shield.

NOTICE

Care must be taken to ensure that fl uids are contained

during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-

ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to

collect the fl uid with suitable containers before open-

ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-

nent containing fl uids.

The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes

must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum

water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below

275 kPa (40 psi).

Fluid Penetration

Dispose of all fl uids according to local regulations and

mandates.

Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long

after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can

cause hydraulic fl uid or items such as pipe plugs to

escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.

Asbestos Information

Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts

until pressure has been relieved or personal injury

may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic

components or parts until pressure has been relieved

or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM

information for any procedures that are required to

relieve the hydraulic pressure.

g00702022

Illustration 7

Perkins replacement parts that are shipped from

Perkins are asbestos free. Perkins recommends

the use of only genuine Perkins replacement parts.

Use the following guidelines when you handle any

replacement parts that contain asbestos or when you

handle asbestos debris.

Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be

generated when you handle components that contain

asbestos fi bers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous

to your health. The components that may contain

asbestos fi bers are brake pads, brake bands, lining

material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The

asbestos that is used in these components is usually

bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal

handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that

contains asbestos is generated.

g00687600

Illustration 6

Always use a board or cardboard when you check

for a leak. Leaking fl uid that is under pressure can

penetrated body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause

serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can

cause severe injury. If fl uid is injected into your skin,

you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment

from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.

If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there

are several guidelines that should be followed:

• Never use compressed air for cleaning.

• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.

• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.

• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos

materials.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


10

SEBU8455

Safety Section

Burn Prevention

• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high

ef fi ciency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be

used.

Relieve all pressure in the following systems,

hydraulic system, lubrication system, fuel system,

and the coolant system before the related items are

disconnected.

• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining

jobs.

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10

minutes in order to allow the pressure to be purged

from the high-pressure lines before any service or

repair is performed on the engine lines.

• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other

way to control the dust.

• Comply with applicable rules and regulations

for the work place. In the United States, use

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirements

can be found in “29 CFR 1910.1001”.

Allow the pressure to be purged in the air system, in

the hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, or

in the cooling system before any lines, fittings, or

related items are disconnected.

Induction System

• Obey environmental regulations for the disposal

of asbestos.

• Stay away from areas that might have asbestos

particles in the air.

Sulfuric Acid Burn Hazard may cause serious per-

sonal injury or death.

Dispose of Waste Properly

The exhaust gas cooler may contain a small

amount of sulfuric acid. The use of fuel with sul-

fur levels greater than 15 ppm may increase the

amount of sulfuric acid formed. The sulfuric acid

may spill from the cooler during service of the

engine. The sulfuric acid will burn the eyes, skin

and clothing on contact. Always wear the appro-

priate personal protective equipment (PPE) that

is noted on a material safety data sheet (MSDS)

for sulfuric acid. Always follow the directions for

fi rst aid that are noted on a material safety data

sheet (MSDS) for sulfuric acid.

Coolant

g00706404

Illustration 8

When the engine is at operating temperature, the

engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under

pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or

to the engine contain hot coolant.

Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the

environment. Potentially harmful fl uids should be

disposed of according to local regulations.

Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause

severe burns. Allow cooling system components to

cool before the cooling system is drained.

Always use leakproof containers when you drain

fl uids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a

drain, or into any source of water.

Check that the coolant level after the engine has

stopped and the engine has been allowed to cool.

i04259330

Burn Prevention

Ensure that the fi ller cap is cool before removing the

fi ller cap. The fi ller cap must be cool enough to touch

with a bare hand. Remove the fi ller cap slowly in

order to relieve pressure.

Do not touch any part of an operating engine

system. Allow the engine system to cool before any

maintenance is performed.

Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can

cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact

the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

11

Safety Section

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

Oils

Remove all fl ammable combustible materials or

conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from

the engine. Do not allow any fl ammable combustible

materials or conductive materials to accumulate on

the engine.

Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause

personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the

skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact

the skin.

Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked

containers away from unauthorized persons. Store

oily rags and any fl ammable materials in protective

containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for

storing fl ammable materials.

Batteries

Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal

injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or

the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing

batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries

and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.

Do not expose the engine to any fl ame.

Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust

components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,

a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be

installed correctly.

i04259389

Fire Prevention and Explosion

Prevention

Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain fl ammable

fl uids. Do not fl ame cut lines or tanks that contain

fl ammable fl uid. Clean any such lines or tanks

thoroughly with a non fl ammable solvent prior to

welding or fl ame cutting.

Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical

wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.

Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires

that are loose or frayed before you operate the

engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten

all electrical connections.

Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.

Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than

the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses

and / or circuit breakers.

Arcing or sparking could cause a fi re. Secure

connections, recommended wiring, and correctly

maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing

or sparking.

g00704000

Illustration 9

All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures

are fl ammable.

Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or for

Flammable fl uids that are leaking or spilled onto hot

surfaces or onto electrical components can cause

a fi re. Fire may cause personal injury and property

damage.

deterioration. The hoses must be correctly routed.

The lines and hoses must have adequate support

and secure clamps. Tighten all connections to the

recommended torque. Leaks can cause fi res.

A fl ash fi re may result if the covers for the engine

crankcase are removed within 15 minutes after an

emergency shutdown.

Oil fi lters and fuel fi lters must be correctly installed.

The fi lter housings must be tightened to the correct

torque.

Determine whether the engine will be operated in an

environment that allows combustible gases to be

drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could

cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,

property damage, or engine damage could result.

If the application involves the presence of combustible

gases, consult your Perkins dealer and / or your

Perkins distributor for additional information about

suitable protection devices.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


12

SEBU8455

Safety Section

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause

an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to

the Operation Section of this manual for speci fi c

instructions.

Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an

explosion.

The batteries must be kept clean. The covers

(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the

recommended cables, connections, and battery box

covers when the engine is operated.

Fire Extinguisher

Make sure that a fi re extinguisher is available. Be

familiar with the operation of the fi re extinguisher.

Inspect the fi re extinguisher and service the fi re

extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations

on the instruction plate.

g00704059

Illustration 10

Lines, Tubes, and Hoses

Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do

not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not

refuel an engine near open fl ames or sparks. Always

stop the engine before refueling.

Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike

high-pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are

bent or damaged. Do not clip any other items to the

high-pressure lines.

Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks

can cause fi res. Consult your Perkins dealer or your

Perkins distributor for repair or for replacement parts.

Check lines, tubes, and hoses carefully. Do not use

your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board or

cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections

to the recommended torque.

Replace the parts if any of the following conditions

are present:

• End fi ttings are damaged or leaking.

• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.

• Wires are exposed.

• Outer coverings are ballooning.

• Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.

• Outer covers have embedded armoring.

• End fi ttings are displaced.

g00704135

Illustration 11

Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open

fl ames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do

not smoke in battery charging areas.

Never check the battery charge by placing a metal

object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or

a hydrometer.

Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields

are installed correctly. During engine operation, this

will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other

parts, and excessive heat.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

13

Safety Section

Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention

i02143194

High-pressure oil within the high-pressure oil line is

used in order to create high-pressure fuel in the unit

injectors.

Crushing Prevention and

Cutting Prevention

Support the component correctly when work beneath

the component is performed.

Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,

never attempt adjustments while the engine is

running.

Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving

parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance

is performed. After the maintenance is performed,

reinstall the guards.

Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan

blades will throw objects or cut objects.

When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in

order to avoid injury to the eyes.

Chips or other debris may fl y off objects when objects

are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no

one will be injured by fl ying debris.

i04016709

Mounting and Dismounting

Do not climb on the engine or the engine

aftertreatment. The engine and aftertreatment have

not been designed with mounting or dismounting

locations.

Refer to the OEM for the location of foot and hand

holds for your speci fi c application.

i04553464

High Pressure Oil Lines

Personal injury can result from oil under high

pressure.

DO NOT allow high pressure oil to contact skin.

Wear appropriate protective equipment while

working with high pressure oil systems.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


14

SEBU8455

Safety Section

Before Starting Engine

g02722895

Illustration 12

(1) High-pressure oil line

(2) High-pressure oil pump

The high-pressure oil line is the line that is between

the high-pressure oil pump and the high-pressure oil

manifold within the cylinder head. This high-pressure

line is different from fuel lines on other fuel systems.

• Do not operate the engine with a leak. Refer to

Disassembly and Assembly, "High-Pressure Oil

Line- Remove and Install ".

• If the high-pressure oil line is torqued correctly,

and the high-pressure oil line is leaking the

high-pressure oil line must be replaced.

These differences are because of the following items:

• The high-pressure oil line is constantly charged

with high pressure.

• Do not attach any other item to the high-pressure

oil line.

• The internal pressure of the high-pressure oil line

is higher than other types of fuel systems.

i02813489

Do not step on the high-pressure oil line. Do not

de fl ect the high-pressure oil line. Do not bend or

strike the high-pressure oil line. Deformation or

damage of the high-pressure oil line may cause a

point of weakness and potential failure.

Before Starting Engine

Before the initial start-up of an engine that is new,

serviced or repaired, make provision to shut the

engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may

be accomplished by shutting off the air and / or fuel

supply to the engine.

Do not check the high-pressure oil line with the

engine or the starting motor in operation. After the

engine has stopped, wait 10 minutes in order to allow

the pressure to be purged from the high-pressure oil

line, before any service or repair is performed.

Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for

engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic

shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop

button in order to cut the fuel and / or air to the engine.

Visually inspect the high-pressure oil line before the

engine is started. This inspection should be each day.

If you inspect the engine in operation, always use

the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid

a fl uid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and

Maintenance Manual, "General hazard Information".

Inspect the engine for potential hazards.

Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,

underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the

area is free of personnel.

• Inspect the high-pressure oil line for damage,

deformation, a nick, a cut, a crease, or a dent.

If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the

engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all

lights work correctly, if equipped.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

15

Safety Section

Engine Starting

All protective guards and all protective covers must

be installed if the engine must be started in order

to perform service procedures. To help prevent an

accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work

around the parts carefully.

To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)

is working correctly, check the water temperature

gauge and / or the oil temperature gauge during the

heater operation.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion

which can be harmful to your health. Always start the

engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated

area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,

vent the engine exhaust to the outside.

Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not

disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are

provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The

circuits are also provided in order to help prevent

engine damage.

Note: The engine may be equipped with a device for

cold starting. If the engine will be operated in very

cold conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may

be required. Normally, the engine will be equipped

with the correct type of starting aid for your region

of operation.

See the Service Manual for repairs and for

adjustments.

i02583384

Engine Starting

i02234873

Engine Stopping

Stop the engine according to the procedure in

the Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Engine

Stopping (Operation Section) ”in order to avoid

overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of

the engine components.

Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY

in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency

Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an

emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the

problem that caused the emergency stop has been

corrected.

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use could result in an explosion and

personal injury.

If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch

or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move

the controls. Consult with the person that attached

the warning tag before the engine is started.

Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs

during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine

that has been overhauled.

To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the

power to the engine and / or shutting off the air supply

to the engine.

All protective guards and all protective covers must

be installed if the engine must be started in order

to perform service procedures. To help prevent an

accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work

around the parts carefully.

i04259711

Electrical System

Start the engine from the operator's compartment or

from the engine start switch.

Always start the engine according to the procedure

that is described in the Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation

Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to

prevent major damage to the engine components.

Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent

personal injury.

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery

circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit

is operating. A spark can cause the combustible

gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.

To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible

gases that are produced by some batteries, the

negative “−” cable should be connected last from

the external power source to the primary position for

grounding.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


16

SEBU8455

Safety Section

Engine Electronics

,

Check the electrical wires daily for wires that

are loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical

connections before the engine is started. Repair all

frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.

See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for

speci fi c starting instructions.

The power supply connections and the ground

connections for the engine electronics should always

be from the isolator to the battery.

i04259752

Engine Electronics

Grounding Practices

Tampering with the electronic system installation

or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous

and could result in personal injury or death and / or

engine damage.

This engine has a comprehensive, programmable

Engine Monitoring System. The Engine Control

Module (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engine

operating conditions. If any of the engine parameters

extend outside an allowable range, the ECM will

initiate an immediate action.

The following actions are available for engine

monitoring control: WARNING, ACTION ALERT, and

SHUTDOWN.

Many of the parameters that are monitored by the

ECM can be programmed for the engine monitoring

functions. The following parameters can be monitored

as a part of the Engine Monitoring System:

g02430157

Illustration 13

Typical example

(1) Ground to battery

(2) Primary position for grounding

(3) Ground to engine block

(4) Ground to stating motor

• Intake Manifold Air Pressure

• Intake Manifold Temperature

• Coolant Temperature

• Engine Oil Pressure

• Engine Oil Temperature

• Crankshaft Position

• Camshaft Position

Correct grounding for the engine electrical system

is necessary for optimum engine performance

and reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in

uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable

electrical circuit paths.

Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in

damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces

and to aluminum components.

Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame

ground straps can be damaged by electrical

discharge.

• Fuel Pressure

• System Voltage

To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical

systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame

ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be

used. This path may be provided by way of a direct

engine ground to the frame.

The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different

engine models and different engine applications.

However, the monitoring system and the engine

monitoring control will be similar for all engines.

The connections for the grounds should be tight and

free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be

grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal with

a wire that is adequate to handle the full charging

current of the alternator.

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SEBU8455

17

Product Information Section

General Information

Product Information

Section

General Information

Model View Illustrations

1600D Engine

i04260031

g02757356

Illustration 14

(1) Rear lifting eye

(2) Front lifting eye

(3) Alternator

(5) Belt tensioner

(6) Coolant pump

(7) Coolant intake connection

(8) Crankcase breather

(9) Oil cooler

(10) Oil filter

(11) Turbocharger

(12) NOx Reduction cooler

(4) Drive belt

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18

SEBU8455

Product Information Section

General Information

g02430477

Illustration 15

(13) Valve mechanism cover

(14) Air cleaner

(15) Flywheel housing

(16) Flywheel

(17) Oil filer

(21) Secondary fuel filter

(22) Hand prime pump

(23) Primary fuel fi lter

(18) Oil drain plug

(19) Control module

(20) High-pressure oil pump

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SEBU8455

19

Product Information Section

General Information

Coolant System for 1600D Engine

g02430617

Illustration 16

(1) Radiator fi ller cap

(5) Rear vent liner

(9) Fan guard

(2) Air to air charge cooler connection

(3) Coolant inlet connection

(4) Front vent line

(6) Coolant drain plug

(7) Coolant outlet connection

(8) Air to air charge cooler connection

(10) Fan

(11) Fan guard

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20

SEBU8455

Product Information Section

General Information

1600A Engine

g02794993

Illustration 17

Typical example

Engine Speci fi cations

i04261592

Product Description

Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the

fl ywheel end of the engine. The left and the right

sides of the engine are determined from the fl ywheel

end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.

The Perkins 1600 Series Industrial Engines has the

following characteristics.

• In-line Six cylinder

• Four stroke cycle

• Turbocharged charge cooled

The 1600 series engines can be divided into

two different engine groups. The 1606A LBSFC

unregulated engine and the 1606D EU stage 3A

compliant engine.

The 1606D engines will have NOx Reduction System

(NRS) installed.

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SEBU8455

twenty one

Product Information Section

General Information

The diesel fuel is drawn from the fuel tank into a

strainer and into a fuel pump. The fuel pump sends

the fuel into the main fuel fi lter. From the main fuel

fi lter the fuel is sent internally to the fuel injectors by

means of an internal fuel manifold. The fuel injectors

use engine lubricating oil from a high-pressure

pump in order to increase the injection pressure.

The injectors are controlled by the engine electronic

control module (ECM).

Aftermarket Products and Perkins

Engines

Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance

of non-Perkins fl uids and fi lters.

g02433836

Illustration 18

Cylinder and valve location

When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables

(fi lters, additives, catalysts,) which are made by other

manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the

Perkins warranty is not affected simply because of

such use.

(A) Inlet valves

(B) Exhaust valves

Table 1

1600 Series Engine Specifications

Operating Range (rpm)

Number of Cylinders

Bore

1500 to 1800

(1)

6 In-Line

However, failures that result from the installation

or use of other manufacturers devices,

accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins

defects. Therefore, the defects are NOT covered

under the Perkins warranty.

116.6 mm sleeve diameter

146

Stroke

Power

298 to 315 kW

(400 to 422 hp)

(2)

Aspiration

Turbocharged charge

cooled

Compression Ratio

Displacement

17.2 to 1

9.3 L

Firing Order

1-5-3-6-2-4

Counterclockwise

Rotation (fl ywheel end)

(1) Depending upon application.

(2) Gross power

The crankshaft has a seven main bearing journals, a

fractured split connecting rods is connected to each

crankshaft journal. The pistons have an off set axis

and made from a one piece steel construction. The

cylinder block has wet liners with a single seal. Four

bushing support the camshaft, and the camshaft is

driven by a drive gear. The camshaft operates the

over head valves. Each cylinder has two inlet valves

and, two exhaust valves.

The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a gerotor oil

pump. The engine has an oil cooler and a spin on

oil fi lter.

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twenty two

SEBU8455

Product Information Section

Product Identi fi cation Information

Product Identi fi cation

Table 4

Information

Number of Cylinders

F

6

H

M

R

8

i04266129

Plate Locations and Film

Locations

12

16

Perkins dealers and Perkins distributors require all of

these numbers in order to determine the components

that were included in the engine. This information

permits accurate identi fi cation of replacement part

numbers.

Perkins engines are identi fi ed by serial numbers.

These numbers are shown on the engine serial

number plate. Perkins distributors need these

numbers in order to determine the components that

were included with the engine. This information

permits accurate identi fi cation of replacement part

numbers.

Engine Identi fi cation

Perkins engines are identi fi ed by an engine serial

number.

A typical example of an engine serial number is

XGE F **** U00001W.

X _________________________________________ Made in Stafford

G ____________________________________Application (Table 2)

E ________________________________Type of engine (Table 3)

F _________________________Number of cylinders (Table 4)

***** __________________________________Fixed build number

N __________________________________________Built in the USA

00001 ____________________________________Engine Number

W ____________________________________Year of Manufacture

Table 2

Application

G

Genset

Table 3

Type of engine (Diesel)

A

B

D

E

F

TAG1

TAG2

TAG3

TAG4

TAG5

TAG6

H

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SEBU8455

twenty three

Product Information Section

Product Identi fi cation Information

Serial Number Plate (1)

g02435523

Illustration 19

Typical example

The engine serial number plate is located on right

side of the cylinder block above the engine oil fi lter.

g02435519

Illustration 20

Typical example

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twenty four

SEBU8455

Product Information Section

Product Identi fi cation Information

i04266330

Emissions Certi fi cation Film

The emission label for the 1600D engine is installed

on rear of the valve mechanism cover.

g02435679

Illustration 21

Typical example

The emission label for the 1600A engine is installed

on rear of the valve mechanism cover.

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SEBU8455

25

Product Information Section

Product Identi fi cation Information

g02834955

Illustration 22

i04266250

Reference Information

Information for the following items may be needed to

order parts. Locate the information for your engine.

Record the information in the appropriate space.

Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the

information for future reference.

Record for Reference

Engine Model _______________________________________________

Engine Serial number _____________________________________

Engine rpm __________________________________________________

Fuel Strainer ________________________________________________

Fuel Filter Element ________________________________________

Lubrication Oil Filter _______________________________________

Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________

Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________

Air Cleaner Element _______________________________________

Drive Belt ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

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26

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage

i04823376

Product Storage

Refer to Perkins Engine Company limited, Stafford

for information on engine storage.

i04655490

Product Lifting

There are three different levels of engine storage.

Level “A, B and C”.

Level “A”

Level “A” will give protection for 12 month for diesel

engines and 12 month protection for gas engines.

This level is for engines that are transported by a

container or a truck. Level “A” is for the transportation

of items that are within the United kingdom and within

Europe.

Level “B”

This level is additional to level “A”. Level “B” will

give protection under normal storage condition

from −15 ° to + 55 ° C (5 ° to 99 ° F) and “90%” relative

humidity for 2 year. Level “B” is for the transportation

of items overseas.

g00103219

Illustration 23

NOTICE

Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load

the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remem-

ber that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle

between the supporting members and the object be-

comes less than 90 degrees.

Level “C”

In order to protect the product to Level “C”, contact

Perkins Engines Company Limited Stafford.

When it is necessary to remove a component at an

angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for

the weight.

Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use

an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All

supporting members (chains and cables) should be

parallel to each other. The chains and cables should

be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being

lifted.

Some removals require lifting the fi xtures in order to

obtain proper balance and safety.

To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that

are on the engine.

Lifting eyes are designed and installed for speci fi c

engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes

and / or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting

fi xtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure

that proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your

Perkins dealer for information regarding fi xtures for

proper engine lifting.

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SEBU8455

27

Operation Section

Features and Controls

Features and Controls

Alarms and Shutoffs

Engine Shutoffs

i04266369

Gauges and Indicators

i04266770

Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of

the gauges that are described. For more information

about the gauge package, see the OEM information.

Gauges provide indications of engine performance.

Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.

Determine the normal operating range by observing

the gauges over a period of time.

The shutoffs are electrically operated or mechanically

operated. The electrically operated shutoffs are

controlled by the ECM.

Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate

potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may

also be indicated by gauge readings that change

even if the readings are within speci fi cations.

Determine and correct the cause of any signi fi cant

change in the readings. Consult your Perkins

distributor for assistance.

Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following

items:

• Operating temperature

• Operating pressure

• Operating level

NOTICE

If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If

maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP

the engine. Engine damage can result.

The particular shutoff may need to be reset before

the engine will start.

NOTICE

Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.

Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart

the engine.

Engine Oil Pressure – The engine oil

pressure at idle is 103 kPa (15 psi).

• The 1600A oil pressure at full load can range

between 340 to 360 kPa (49 to 52 psi)

Be familiar with the following items:

• Types and locations of the shutoff

• The 1600D oil pressure at full load operates at

370 kPa (53 psi)

• Conditions which cause each shutoff to function

Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –

Typical water temperature into the engine

is 88 ° to 109 ° C (190 ° to 228 ° F). Higher

temperatures may occur under certain conditions.

The water temperature reading may vary according

to load. The reading should never exceed 109 ° C

(228 ° F).

• The resetting procedure that is required to restart

the engine

Engine Alarms

The alarms are electrically operated. The operation

of the alarms is controlled by the ECM.

1. A high water temperature switch is installed in the

cooling system.

The alarm is operated by a sensor or by a switch.

When the sensor or the switch is activated, a signal

is sent to the ECM. An event code is created by

the ECM. The ECM will send a signal in order to

illuminate the lamp.

Tachometer – This gauge indicates engine

speed (rpm).

Your engine may be equipped with the following

sensors or switches:

Ammeter – This gauge indicates the

amount of charge or discharge in the

battery charging circuit. Operation of the

indicator should be to the right side of “0” (zero).

• Engine oil temperature sensor

• Engine oil pressure sensor

• Engine coolant temperature sensor

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28

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Features and Controls

Programmable Options and

Systems Operation

Service Hour Meter – The gauge indicates

operating hours of the engine.

i04266490

If the Warning / Derate / Shutdown mode has been

selected and the warning indicator activates,

bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. De-

pending on the application, special precautions

should be taken to avoid personal injury.

Monitoring System

The engine can be programmed to the following

modes:

If the Shutdown mode has been selected and the

warning indicator activates, engine shutdown may

take as little as 20 seconds from the time the warn-

ing indicator is activated. Depending on the ap-

plication, special precautions should be taken to

avoid personal injury. The engine can be restarted

following shutdown for emergency maneuvers, if

necessary.

"Warning"

The orange “Warning” lamp will turn “ON” and the

warning signal is activated continuously in order to

alert the operator that one or more of the engine

parameters is not within normal operating range.

"Derate"

NOTICE

The Engine Monitoring System is not a guarantee

against catastrophic failures. Programmed delays

and derate schedules are designed to minimize false

alarms and provide time for the operator to stop the

engine.

The engine will be derated if the engine exceeds

preset operational limits. The engine derate is

achieved by restricting the amount of fuel that is

available for each injection. The amount of this

reduction of fuel is dependent on the severity of the

fault that has caused the engine derate, typically up

to a limit of 50%. This reduction in fuel results in a

predetermined reduction in engine power.

The following parameters are monitored:

• Coolant temperature

"Shutdown"

• Intake manifold air temperature

• Intake manifold air pressure

• Oil pressure

The orange warning will turn “ON” and the red

shutdown lamp will also turn “ON”.

A shutdown of the engine may occur in as little as

3 seconds. The engine can be restarted after a

shutdown for use in an emergency. However, the

cause of the initial shutdown may still exist. The

engine may shut down again in as little as 3 seconds.

• Oil temperature

• Fuel pressure

• Engine speed / timing

For more information or assistance for repairs,

consult your Perkins distributor or your Perkins

dealer.

• Fuel temperature

• Atmospheric pressure (Barometric pressure)

• Injection control pressure

• Water in fuel switch

i04266532

Sensors and Electrical

Components

The illustrations within the section show the typical

location of the sensors. Speci fi c engines may appear

different from the illustration due to differences in

applications.

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SEBU8455

29

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02435937

Illustration 24

(1) Valve for the NOx Reduction System

(NRS)

(2) Manifold absolute pressure sensor

(3) Manifold air temperature sensor

(4) Water in fuel sensor

(5) Engine oil temperature sensor

(6) Injection pressure regulator

(7) Engine fuel pressure sensor

(8) Air inlet heater

(10) Crankshaft position sensor

(11) Coolant jacket heater

(12) Engine oil pressure sensor

(13) Starting motor

(9) Control Module

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30

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02731387

Illustration 25

(14) Injection control pressure sensor

(Internal)

(15) Exhaust back pressure sensor

(16) Engine coolant temperature sensor

(17) Camshaft position sensor

(18) Alternator

Alternator has been shown separately for clarity.

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SEBU8455

31

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02740697

Illustration 26

(19) Connector and seal

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32

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02732035

Illustration 27

(1) Valve for the NOx Reduction System

(NRS)

(2) Manifold absolute pressure sensor

(3) Manifold air temperature sensor

(4) Water in fuel sensor

(5) Engine oil temperature sensor

(6) Injection pressure regulator

(7) Engine fuel pressure sensor

(8) Air inlet heater

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SEBU8455

33

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02732036

Illustration 28

(9) Control module

(A) Driver for the NRS valve

(B) Injection Drive Module (IDM)

(C) High current relay

(D) Electronic Control Module (ECM)

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34

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02732039

Illustration 29

(10) Crankshaft position sensor

(11) Coolant jacket heater

(12) Engine oil pressure sensor

(13) Starting motor

(E) Solenoid

(F) Relay

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

35

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02732040

Illustration 30

(14) Injection control pressure sensor

(15) Exhaust back pressure sensor

(16) Coolant temperature sensor

(17) Camshaft position sensor

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36

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02740857

Illustration 31

Item 18 alternator not shown.

(19) Connector and seal

(G) Injection control pressure connection

(H) Connector for injectors 1 and injector 2

(I) Connector for injectors 3 and injector 4

(J) Connector for injectors 5 and injector 6

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

37

Operation Section

Features and Controls

Wiring Harness

g02740876

Illustration 32

(1) Coolant temperature

(2) Exhaust back pressure

(3) NRS

(4) Injection control

(5) Injectors 1 and 2

(6) Water in fuel

(7) Inlet air temperature

(8) Manifold absolute pressure

(9) Inlet heater terminal

(10) Injectors 3 and 4

(11) Injectors 5 and 6

(12) Plug for inlet heater

(13) Relay

(14) Crankshaft position

(15) Injector drive connections

(16) ECM

(17) NRS drive

(18) Customer connection

(19) Low-pressure fuel

(20) Engine oil pressure

(21) Injection pressure regulator

(22) Oil temperature

(23) Camshaft position connection

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38

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Engine Diagnostics

Engine Diagnostics

i02651197

Engine Operation with Active

Diagnostic Codes

i02784187

Self-Diagnostics

If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine

operation, the system has identi fi ed a situation that is

not within the speci fi cation. Use the electronic service

tool to check the active diagnostic codes.

The electronic control module has some

self-diagnostic ability. When an electronic problem

with an input or an output is detected, a diagnostic

code is generated. This indicates the speci fi c problem

with the circuitry.

The active diagnostic code should be investigated.

The cause of the problem should be corrected as

soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic

code is repaired and there is only one active

diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.

A diagnostic code which represents a problem that

currently exists is called an active code.

A diagnostic code that is stored in memory is called

a logged code. Always service active codes prior to

servicing logged codes. Logged codes may indicate

intermittent problems.

Operation of the engine and performance of the

engine can be limited as a result of the active

diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates

may be signi fi cantly slower and power outputs may

be automatically reduced. Refer to Troubleshooting

, "Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code" for more

information on the relationship between each active

diagnostic code and the possible effect on engine

performance.

Logged codes may not indicate that a repair is

needed. The problems may have been repaired since

the logging of the code. Logged codes may be helpful

to troubleshoot intermittent problems.

i04801080

i02784585

Engine Operation with

Fault Logging

Intermittent Diagnostic Codes

The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.

When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)

generates an active diagnostic code, the code will

be logged in the memory of the ECM. The Perkins

electronic service tool can retrieve codes that have

been logged. The codes that have been logged can

be cleared with the Perkins electronic service tool.

If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine

operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts OFF, an

intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has

occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of

the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine

because of an intermittent code. However, the

operator should retrieve the logged fault codes

and the operator should reference the appropriate

information in order to identify the nature of the fault.

The operator should log any observation that could

have caused the lamp to light.

• Low power

• Limits of the engine speed

• Excessive smoke, etc

This information can be useful to help troubleshoot

the situation. The information can also be used for

future reference. For more information on diagnostic

codes, refer to the Troubleshooting guide for this

engine.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

39

Operation Section

Engine Starting

Engine Starting

i02815193

Cold Weather Starting

i04268175

Before Starting Engine

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use could result in an explosion and

personal injury.

Before the engine is started, perform the required

daily maintenance and any other periodic

maintenance that is due. Refer to the Operation

and Maintenance Manual, "Maintenance Interval

Schedule ”for more information.

The engine will start at a temperature of −10 ° C

(14 ° F). The ability to start at temperatures below

10 ° C (50 ° F) will improve by the use of a cylinder

block coolant heater or a device which heats the

crankcase oil. This will help to reduce white smoke

and mis fi res when the engine is started in cold

weather.

• Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).

NOTICE

All valves in the fuel return line must be open before

and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel

pressure. High fuel pressure may cause fi lter housing

failure or other damage.

If the engine has not been run for several weeks, fuel

may have drained. Air may have moved into the fi lter

housing. Also, when fuel fi lters have been changed,

some air will be left in the fi lter housing. Refer to

Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Fuel System-

Prime ”in order to remove air from the fuel system.

If the engine has not been started for several weeks,

fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air

may have entered the fi lter housing. Also, when fuel

filters have been changed, some air pockets will be

trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the

fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Fuel System-Prime” for more information

on priming the fuel system.

Use the procedure that follows for cold weather

starting.

NOTICE

Do not engage the starting motor when fl ywheel is

turning. Do not start the engine under load.

If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release

the starter switch or button and wait thirty seconds to

allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to

start the engine again.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion

which may be harmful to your health. Always start

and operate the engine in a well ventilated area

and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the

outside.

1. If equipped, press the start button. If equipped,

turn the keyswitch to the START position in order

to engage the electric starting motor and crank

the engine.

• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls

if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or

similar warning tag attached to the start switch or

to the controls.

2. Repeat step 1 three times if the engine fails to

• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if

equipped).

start.

3. If the engine fails to start, investigate the problem.

Use the Perkins electronic service tool. A system

fault may be indicated after the engine is started. If

this occurs the ECM has detected a problem with

the system. Investigate the cause of the problem.

Use the Perkins electronic service tool.

• Ensure that any equipment that is driven by the

engine has been disengaged from the engine.

Minimize electrical loads or remove any electrical

loads.

• Ensure that the coolant level is correct.

• Ensure that the engine oil level is correct.

Note: Oil pressure should rise within 15 seconds

after the engine starts. The electronic engine controls

monitor the oil pressure. The electronic controls will

stop the engine if the oil pressure is below normal.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


40

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Engine Starting

4. Operate the engine at no load until all the coolant

temperature starts to rise. Check the gauges

during the warm-up period.

i04268176

Starting the Engine

Note: The oil pressures and fuel pressures should

be in the normal range on the instrument panel. Do

not apply a load to the engine until the oil pressure

gauge indicates at least normal pressure. Inspect the

engine for leaks and / or unusual noises.

Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during

start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will

control the engine speed during start-up.

Starting the Engine

Note: After the ECM has completed the cold mode,

cold mode cannot be enabled again until the ECM is

switched OFF.

1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the

engine.

Note: Do not attempt to restart the engine until the

engine has completely stopped.

2. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position and wait for

the wait to stat lamp to go off.

Note: The air inlet heat will be required in low

ambient temperatures. The ECM will decide if the air

heater element will be required to warn the intake air

in order to start the engine.

3. Turn the keyswitch to the START position.

Release the keyswitch when the engine starts.

The keyswitch will return to the ON position.

NOTICE

Do not engage the starting motor when fl ywheel is

turning. Do not start the engine under load.

If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release

the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to

allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to

start the engine again.

4. With the engine in operation check the oil

pressure. Oil pressure should be 103 kPa (15 psi)

within seconds of engine operation, if oil pressure

is incorrect, stop the engine and investigate

immediately. If the engine cannot reach minimum

oil pressure 276 kPa (40 psi) or other warning

are activated, stop the engine and investigate

immediately.

5. If the engine fails to start, repeat steps 2 to step 3.

6. If the engine fails to start after three attempts,

determine the cause.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

41

Operation Section

Engine Starting

i02428473

Starting with Jump Start

Cables

Do not use jump start cables in order to start the

engine. Charge the batteries or replace the batteries.

Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,

"Battery-Replace".

i01646248

After Starting Engine

Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60 ° C (32 to 140 ° F),

the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In

temperatures below 0 ° C (32 ° F), additional warm-up

time may be required.

Note: Ensure that the self test for the monitoring

system (if equipped) is completed before operating

the engine under load.

When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the

following conditions:

• Check for any fl uid or for any air leaks at idle rpm

and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)

before operating the engine under load. This is not

possible in some applications.

• Operate the engine at low idle until all systems

achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges

during the warm-up period.

Note: Gauge readings should be observed and

the data should be recorded frequently while the

engine is operating. Comparing the data over time

will help to determine normal readings for each

gauge. Comparing data over time will also help

detect abnormal operating developments. Signi fi cant

changes in the readings should be investigated.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


42

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Engine Operation

Engine Operation

i02583385

Fuel Conservation Practices

i02578030

Engine Operation

The efciency of the engine can affect the fuel

economy. Perkins design and technology in

manufacturing provides maximum fuel ef fi ciency in

all applications. Follow the recommended procedures

in order to attain optimum performance for the life

of the engine.

Correct operation and maintenance are key factors

in obtaining the maximum life and economy of

the engine. If the directions in the Operation and

Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be

minimized and engine service life can be maximized.

• Avoid spilling fuel.

Gauge readings should be observed and the data

should be recorded frequently while the engine

is operating. Comparing the data over time will

help to determine normal readings for each gauge.

Comparing data over time will also he, lp detect

abnormal operating developments. Signi fi cant

changes in the readings should be investigated.

Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel

may over fl ow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for

leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.

• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.

Use only the recommended fuels.

• Avoid unnecessary operation at no load.

Shut off the engine instead of operating the engine

at no load for long periods of time.

• Observe the service indicator for the air cleaner

frequently, if equipped. Keep the air cleaner

elements clean.

• Maintain a good electrical system.

One bad battery cell will overwork the alternator. This

will consume excess power and excess fuel.

• Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. The

belts should be in good condition.

• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are

tight. The connections should not leak.

• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good

working order.

• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Keep cooling

system components clean and keep cooling

system components in good repair. Never operate

the engine without water temperature regulators.

All of these items will help maintain operating

temperatures.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

43

Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

Cold Weather Operation

Personal injury or property damage can result

from alcohol or starting fl uids.

i04564559

Cold Weather Operation

Alcohol or starting fl uids are highly fl ammable and

toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury

or property damage.

Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in

cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and

the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on

the following items:

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use could result in an explosion and

personal injury.

• The type of fuel that is used

• The viscosity of the engine oil

• Optional Cold starting aid

• Battery condition

Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication

Oil

Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity

affects the amount of torque that is needed

to crank the engine. Refer to Operation and

Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for

the recommended viscosity of oil.

The operation and maintenance of an engine in

freezing temperatures is complex, because of the

following conditions:

• Weather conditions

• Engine applications

Recommendations for the Coolant

Provide cooling system protection for the lowest

expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation

and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”

for the recommended coolant mixture.

Recommendations from your Perkins distributor are

based on past proven practices. The information that

is contained in this section provides guidelines for

cold-weather operation.

In cold weather, check the coolant often for the

correct glycol concentration in order to ensure

adequate freeze protection.

Hints for Cold Weather Operation

• If the engine will start, operate the engine until a

minimum operating temperature of 81 ° C (177.8 ° F)

is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will

help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves

from sticking.

Coolant Jacket Heaters

If installed, the coolant jacket heater heats the engine

jacket coolant that surrounds the cylinder block. This

added heat provides the following function:

• The cooling system and the lubrication system

for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon

shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut

down for a time and the engine can still have the

ability to start readily.

• Startability is improved.

An electric heater can be activated once the engine

is stopped. An effective heater is typically a 1250

W at 120 V. If your engine is to operate in a cold

environment, consult your Perkins distributor for more

information. An oil pan heater may also be required.

• Install the correct speci fi cation of engine lubricant

before the beginning of cold weather.

• Check all rubber parts (hoses, drive belts,) weekly.

• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any

fraying or damaged insulation.

• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.

• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.

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44

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

i02576035

• A lower energy per unit volume of fuel

Fuel and the Effect from Cold

Weather

Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The

use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins

warranty.

Group 3 fuels include Low Temperature Fuels and

Aviation Kerosene Fuels.

Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended

by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.

Special fuels include Biofuel.

The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax

crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause

the fuel fi lters to plug.

The following fuels can be used in this series of

engine.

• Group 1

The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel

will thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant

to fl ow through fuel lines, fuel filters, and fuel pumps.

• Group 2

• Group 3

Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is

purchased. Consider the average ambient air

temperature for the engine's application. Engines that

are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the

engines are moved to another climate. Problems can

result due to changes in temperature.

• Special Fuels

Perkins prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for

use in this series of engines.

Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for

general use by Perkins. Group 1 fuels maximize

engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels

are usually less available than Group 2 fuels.

Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder

climates during the winter.

Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor

performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.

Low temperature fuels may be available for engine

operation at temperatures below 0 ° C (32 ° F). These

fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low

temperatures.

Note: Group 2 fuels must have a maximum wear

scar of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).

For more information on cold weather operation, refer

to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Cold

Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in

Cold Weather ".

Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues

of warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life

of the engine, the engine's maximum power, and the

engine's fuel ef fi ciency.

When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the following

components provide a means of minimizing problems

in cold weather:

• Glow plugs (if equipped)

• Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM

option

• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option

• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option

There are three major differences between Group

1 fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels have the

following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.

• A lower cloud point

• A lower pour point

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

45

Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

i04268370

Fuel Related Components in

Cold Weather

Fuel Tanks

Condensation can form in partially fi lled fuel tanks.

Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.

Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining

water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.

Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water

and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel

supply pipe.

Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel

directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is

equipped with this system, regular maintenance of

the fuel system fi lter is important.

Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage

tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes,

and refueling of the fuel tank. This draining will help

prevent water and / or sediment from being pumped

from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel

tank.

Fuel Filter

A strainer and fuel fi lter is installed between the

fuel tank and the electronic fuel injectors. After you

change the fuel fi lter, always prime the fuel system

in order to remove air bubbles from the fuel system.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual in

the Maintenance Section for more information on

priming the fuel system.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


46

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Engine Stopping

Engine Stopping

i02583411

After Stopping Engine

i04268255

Stopping the Engine

Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate

the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow

the engine oil to return to the oil pan.

NOTICE

• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level

between the “LOW” mark and the “HIGH” mark on

the oil level gauge.

Stopping the engine immediately after it has been

working under load, can result in overheating and ac-

celerated wear of the engine components.

Note: Only use oil that is recommended in

this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid

Recommendations”. Failure to use the recommended

oil may result in engine damage.

Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it down.

Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize tur-

bocharger shaft and bearing life.

• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair

any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.

Note: Individual applications will have different

control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures

are understood. Use the following general guidelines

in order to stop the engine.

• Note the service hour meter reading. Perform

the maintenance that is in the Operation and

Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval

Schedule”.

1. Remove the load from the engine. Allow the

engine to run under no load conditions for 5

minutes in order to cool the engine.

• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent

accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill

the fuel tank.

2. Stop the engine after the cool down period

according to the shutoff system on the engine and

turn the ignition keyswitch to the OFF position.

If necessary, refer to the instructions that are

provided by the OEM.

• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.

Maintain the cooling system at 13 mm (0.5 inch)

from the bottom of the pipe for filling.

Note: Only use coolant that is recommended in

this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid

Recommendations”. Failure to use the recommended

oil may result in engine damage.

i01903586

Emergency Stopping

• If freezing temperatures are expected, check

the coolant for proper antifreeze protection. The

cooling system must be protected against freezing

to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add

the proper coolant/water mixture, if necessary.

NOTICE

Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use

ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or

controls for normal stopping procedure.

• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all

driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in

the instructions from the OEM.

The OEM may have equipped the application with

an emergency stop button. For more information

about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM

information.

Ensure that any components for the external system

that support the engine operation are secured after

the engine is stopped.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


SEBU8455

47

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

Maintenance Section

i04268521

Fluid Recommendations

Refill Capacities

• Glossary

i04268391

• ISO International Standards Organization

• ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials

Refill Capacities

• HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Rig for

Lubricity testing of diesel fuels

Lubrication System

• FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Esters

• CFR Co-ordinating Fuel Research

• LSD Low Sulfur Diesel

The refill capacities for the engine crankcase

reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase

or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter

systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM

specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Maintenance Section” for more information on

Lubricant Specifications.

• RME Rape Methyl Ester

• SME Soy Methyl Ester

Table 5

• EPA Environmental Protection Agency of the

United States

Engine

Refill Capacities

Compartment or System

Crankcase Oil Sump

Maximum

General Information

(1)

35.96 L (7.9Imp gal)

NOTICE

(1) These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase

Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date

information. By use of this document you agree that

Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible

for errors or omissions.

oil sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters.

Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer

to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil

filter.

Cooling System

NOTICE

These recommendations are subject to change with-

out notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for

the most up-to-date recommendations.

Refer to the OEM specifications for the External

System capacity. This capacity information will be

needed in order to determine the amount of coolant

that is required for the Total Cooling System.

Table 6

Diesel Fuel Requirements

Engine

Refill Capacities

Perkins is not in a position to continuously evaluate

and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel

specifications that are published by governments and

technological societies.

Compartment or System

11.8 L

1600A Engine Only

(2.6 Imp gal)

Table 7 provides a known reliable baseline in order

to judge the expected performance of distillate diesel

fuels that are derived from conventional sources.

30.9 L

1600A Total System

(6.8 Imp gal)

13.2 L

1600D Engine Only

(2.9 Imp gal)

Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on

the use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good

quality fuel will give the following results: long engine

life and acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The

fuel must meet the minimum requirements that are

stated in table 7.

32.3 L

1600D Total System

(7.1 Imp gal)

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE

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