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Cummins diesel engine intake and exhaust valve assembly physical map and parameter models are for reference only: For specific price models, please contact our sales online customer service,
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Common fault analysis of Cummins gas distribution mechanism:
1. Cause analysis of valve damage of Cummins diesel engine:
1) Phenomenon: Cylinder pressure drops, rough operation;
2) Cause: Valve deformation due to local high temperature; insufficient cooling; late injection; overload; supercharger failure; incorrect fuel;
2, Cummins diesel engine valve deposits
1) Phenomenon: The valve sound is abnormal; there is black smoke in the exhaust; it may be difficult to start;
2) Cause: Piston group failure; fuel quality is not up to standard; oil quality;
3. Cummins diesel engine valve seat mating surface wear
1) Phenomenon: Exhaust smoke; May be difficult to start;
2) Reasons: overload for a long time; incorrect fuel injection time; fuel quality is not up to standard
3) Routine inspection method: measure cylinder pressure.
2. "Double row non-entry" method to adjust valve clearance
Double means inlet and exhaust valves, and exhaust means exhaust valves.
1. Cummins valve adjustment principle: phase diagram of diesel engine gas distribution;
2. Method: For four-stroke diesel engines, all valves are adjusted in two weeks. In the first week, the first cylinder is at the top dead center of the compression stroke, and all the valves are adjusted by half. In the second week, the remaining cylinders are adjusted.
3. Operation method (take 6-cylinder machine as an example, work sequence 1-5-3-6-2-4):
1) Make the first cylinder at the top dead center of the compression stroke;
Dongfeng Cummins cylinder head and valve mechanism
Cummins B, C series machines are integrated lateral ventilation structure, two valves per cylinder. Machine B has a cast valve guide and a hardened valve seat (can be re-inserted during repairs), and Machine C has an inlay valve guide and seat ring. The cylinder head has a cast intake manifold, fuel filter seat, thermostat housing, and internal water bypass.
The oil nozzle is installed on the cylinder head and can directly inject fuel into the cylinder.
Each cylinder uses independent supports to support and deliver oil to the rocker arm. Among them, the B machine is supplied by 6 oil channels from the main oil channel separately, and the C machine is supplied to each support by an oil pipeline.
The cylinder head gasket is a laminated structure. On both sides around the water hole, there are printed "O" -shaped seal rings. The seal ring has a layer of refractory ring to seal the cylinder liner hole, and there are measuring holes on it to control the flow of the coolant.
Function and composition of Cummins diesel engine ventilation system
1. The function of the ventilation system: The function of the ventilation system is to supply a sufficient amount of fresh air to the cylinder in a timely manner in accordance with the needs of the engine's working cycle process, and to send out the burned exhaust gas in time, safely and as thoroughly as possible.
2. The composition of the ventilation system: The general ventilation system is mainly composed of air filters, intake ducts, air distribution mechanisms, exhaust ducts, mufflers and so on.
3. Working route of the ventilation system: When the engine is working, the air is first filtered by the air filter, and then enters the cylinder through the intake pipe and the intake valve; the exhaust gas generated by the combustion passes through the exhaust valve and exhaust during the exhaust process. The air duct and muffler are discharged outside the body.
Diesel engine gas distribution mechanism: The function of the gas distribution mechanism is to regularly open and close the intake and exhaust valves in accordance with the ignition sequence of the engine and the working process in the cylinder to ensure that fresh air and exhaust gas can be drawn into the cylinder in time. The cylinder can be sealed during the compression and expansion strokes to ensure the normal operation of the engine.
The requirements for the gas distribution mechanism are: as much air as possible enters the cylinder, and exhaust gas in the cylinder is exhausted as much as possible. When the gas distribution mechanism performs high-speed reciprocating motion, minimize vibration and noise, improve working reliability and extend service life.
Gas distribution mechanism icon
1. Structure of gas distribution mechanism
1. According to the function of parts, the valve distributing mechanism is divided into two components: valve group and valve transmission group.
2. Valve group: Valve group includes valve, valve seat, valve guide, valve spring, valve lock clip, valve oil seal and other parts.
The valve is divided into an intake valve and an exhaust valve, which respectively control the intake and exhaust. The structure is the same, the intake valve head is larger than the exhaust valve head. The valve is composed of a valve head and a valve stem. The valve head is disc-shaped and the valve stem is cylindrical. The tail of the valve stem is tapered for mounting the locking plate. The valve and the valve seat together form a sealing surface to seal the gas in the cylinder.
The main function of the valve guide is to ensure the linearity of the reciprocating motion of the valve, so that the valve and the valve seat can be properly matched. In order to prevent excessive intake of oil and impurities between the valve stem and the valve guide, a valve oil seal is installed on the valve guide of the diesel engine.
3. Valve spring: The valve spring is used to ensure that the valve can be pressed against the valve seat when it is closed, and the transmission parts are kept in contact with each other during movement. The valve spring should have a large preload when it is installed. If the spring is loose, it is easy to cause valve leakage and other faults.
Installation of valve block
Cummins Diesel Engine Valve Block Frequently Asked Questions
1.Air leakage from the valve:
2. Due to the poor seal or tight seal of the valve and valve seat, the gas in the cylinder that leaks out of the cylinder through the intake and exhaust ducts is called valve leak.
Cause analysis of valve leak:
1. When the diesel engine is running, the valve constantly collides with the valve seat and comes into contact with high-temperature gas, which will cause the valve and valve seat to wear or ablate. If the wear is uneven, the seal ring seal will be bad.
2. After the combustion, the carbon deposits are accumulated between the valve and the valve seat, resulting in a tight seal.
3. After the valve spring is softened or broken, the pressure between the valve and the valve seat is not enough to cause air leakage.
4. The valve lock clip comes off, and the valve spring cannot press the valve on the valve seat.
5. The gap between the valve and the valve guide is too small, and the valve is stuck in the guide after being heated, which makes it impossible to close.
6. If the piston top valve is caused by some reasons, the valve will be bent up, which will cause the seal to be tight.
7, the valve clearance is too small, when the valve should be closed, the rocker arm is still pressed against the valve, making the valve close tightly.
Diesel engine failure often caused by valve leaks:
1. Diesel abnormal noise
4. The diesel engine cannot start
2.Insufficient valve opening
Due to improper adjustments and other reasons, the valve opening will be insufficient, resulting in insufficient air intake, incomplete exhaust, and finally failures such as diesel smoke and insufficient power. Insufficient valve opening is caused by excessive valve clearance.
3.The valve spring becomes soft or broken
Valve springs have been subjected to cyclic impact forces, which can easily cause fatigue failure, resulting in softening or breaking.
Faults often caused by problems with valve springs:
1. Valve leak
2. The broken valve spring will cause the valve to fall into the cylinder, causing the valve to be bent, the piston ruptured, and the cylinder will be severely damaged.
Second, the ventilation process of Cummins diesel engine: The engine ventilation process includes two processes: exhaust and intake: Excluding the exhaust gas in the cylinder and filling as much fresh air as possible is the prerequisite and key to ensure the engine's power performance.
1. Gas distribution phase and valve clearance: The moment when the intake and exhaust valves start to open and close is expressed by the crank angle. The corresponding law between them is called the gas distribution phase. In the actual work of the engine, the intake and exhaust valves are opened early and delayed closed (relative to top dead center), which is often called early opening and late closing of the valves.
2. Valve clearance: The valve clearance refers to the clearance between the end of the valve stem and the rocker arm when the valve is fully closed. Its function is to leave room for expansion when the parts of the gas distribution mechanism are heated.
The size of the valve clearance has a great impact on the normal operation of the valve train, which has a great impact on the performance of the engine. If there is no proper clearance in the cold state, the expansion after heating will cause the valve to close improperly, causing the cylinder to leak air, which will cause the engine power to drop, and even the valve to burn out. Excessive valve clearance will reduce the maximum valve opening and reduce power.
Generally, the temperature of the exhaust valve is higher than that of the intake valve, so the clearance of the exhaust valve is slightly larger than that of the intake valve. Valve clearance is usually adjusted in the cold state.
Cummins diesel engine ventilation system troubleshooting
The main phenomena are: difficulty in starting the engine, reduced power, black smoke, etc. When you shake the crankshaft by hand, you can hear the sound of air leakage. The possible reasons are:
1. There is carbon deposits, ablation, spots, and even flaking between the valve and the valve seat. The lighter person can take the valve seat hinge cutting, the valve is polished, and then the two are ground. In severe cases, valve seats and valves need to be replaced.
2. The clearance between the valve stem and the valve guide is incorrect. If the gap is too large, the valve will sway, causing deflection when closing, resulting in poor sealing; if the gap is too small, the valve will become stuck in the duct, which will cause the valve to close tightly or cannot be closed. The catheter can be reamed with a catheter reamer.
3. The spring force of the valve spring is insufficient or broken, which makes the valve not close tightly or cannot be closed. If it fails, it can only be replaced.
4. The valve clearance is too small, so that the valve and other levers will not expand after being heated, causing the valve to close improperly. Adjust the valve clearance. After loosening the adjusting nut, unscrew the adjusting screw and lock the nut.
2. Cummins diesel engine valve knocks
The main phenomenon is that a crisp metal knock can be heard at the valve chamber. This sound changes as the engine speed changes; metal knocks can be heard at the connection between the cylinder head and the cylinder block, but they are not crispy. The main reasons may be:
1. The valve clearance is too large, which causes the rocker to hit the end of the valve stem, and the valve clearance needs to be checked and adjusted.
2. The valve clearance is too small or the amount of valve drop is not enough, causing the valve to hit the top of the piston. Need to adjust the valve clearance or valve seat after adjusting the valve clearance.
3. The valve spring breaks, causing the valve to fall but not fall into the cylinder. Valve spring needs to be replaced.
4. The valve seat ring falls off. The seat ring needs to be replaced, that is, the cylinder head is heated in the oil to about 100 ° C, and then the seat ring is knocked into the seat hole. After assembling and smoothing the surface, grind it with the valve to the specified requirements.
3. Cummins diesel engine valve falls off
The phenomenon is that the engine suddenly stops and there is a large impact sound. The main reasons may be that the lock plate on the valve stem falls off due to vibration; the spring is broken; the valve stem is broken. Stop the machine and replace the parts.